文化型永續社區經營者實踐能力建構之探討:以台南中西區之「老屋」為例 A Study on the Management Capacity-Building of the “Old House” at Culturally Sustainable Communities

Date
2016
Authors
鄭美媛
TEY MEE EN
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Abstract
台南以「文化立都」,作為一座台灣文化首府的歷史城市,除了擁有全台最多的古蹟,也因民間團體自主力量發起「老屋欣力」運動,鼓吹民眾支持優質老屋再利用案例、分享舊稱美好在地生活,歷經兩屆活動推廣,引起社會廣大迴響。「老屋」一躍成為炙手可熱,繼古蹟、小吃之後,民眾走訪的熱門景點。研究場域的中西區位於台南舊城區,擁有眾多古蹟及老屋、歷史老街紋理、人文氣息、交通方便等能成為文化型永續社區等先天條件。在本研究中,老屋經營者是文化型永續社區經營者的角色,老屋經經營者再利用及活化下,開創了台南這座歷史城市的更多可能和永續發展。本研究以文化型永續社區經營者之認知與實踐能力,以及分析討論實踐過程的現況,作為現況與未來檢視永續社區之參考。 理論架構經營者認知部分取古都保存再生文教基金會2014年所起草的「老屋欣力宣言」之內涵:(1)在地歷史文化價值、(2)多元常民生活元素、(3)公益回饋與利潤分享、(4)友善鄰里社區、(5)公眾安全與專業判斷、以及(6)創新思維。 經營者實踐能力參考Middlemiss and Parrish (2010) 提出的「社區生態足跡責任」之四個能力面向:(1)個人能力、(2)基礎設施能力、(3)組織能力、與(4) 文化能力作為能力架構;並在基礎設施能力加入古都保存再生文教基金對「老屋欣力」評選老屋再利用經典案例的七大價值指標相關內涵提問。 問卷第三部分設計三題開放性題目,以瞭解經營者在文化型永續社區實踐過程的狀況,問題分別是「最大成就感」、「最大的阻礙」及「如何才能永續經營與發展」。 本研究採調查研究法中的問卷調查法,以問卷方式測量研究對象的認知與能力概況,發放紙本問卷30份與網路問卷226份,回收有效問卷66份再以SPSS 22統計軟體進行資料分析,以及問卷開放性問題的討論,研究結果顯示: 一、文化型永續社區經營者的認知表現為積極;在經營者的實踐能力為中上。 二、文化型永續社區經營者對「公眾安全與專業判斷」表現最好,反映社區經營者對老屋建築的瞭解程度偏高。 三、實踐能力中四個構面能力中以「組織能力」得分相當低落,反映經營者對目前組織在文化型永續社區的實踐滿意度低落。 四、經營者對老屋經營保持的成就感來自發掘及展現老屋的價值、重建老屋與人的關係;最大的阻礙來自資金不足、老屋年久失修的狀況、關係人的態度與行動;老屋的永續經營與發展則需要關係人的合作、老屋維護的相關培力、文化保存與永續觀念的教育。
Known as the Cultural Pioneer of Taiwan, Tainan is the forefront of cultural and historical conservation. Aside from possessing the highest number of historical monuments in the country, it is also a significant location for grassroots projects driven by the local community, namely the “Old House, New Life” effort. This project encourages the public to support old house restoration cases, and to share enduring local ways of life. After two sessions of promotional activities, there is an enthusiastic and optimistic response from the community. 「Old House」took off and became a prominent topic, transforming the old houses into frequently visited places of interest alongside historical monuments and local eateries. The central and western district of the research area is located in Tainan’s old town district. With the existence of numerous historical monuments and old houses, streets wrinkled by time, cultural atmosphere, convenience of a good public transport system, it possesses the innate factors of a sustainable cultural hub. In this research, the old house proprietors play the role of cultural and sustainable community managers. As a result of reinvigoration and refurbishment efforts of the proprietors, the historical city of Tainan attains further possibilities for sustainable development. This research utilizes the knowledge and practical abilities of cultural and sustainable community managers, as well as discussions of practical processes as reference for future analysis of sustainable communities. The theoretical framework of managers’ cognition is acquired from the Foundation of Historic City Conservation and Regeneration 2014「Old House, New Life Declaration」content:(1)local historical and cultural significance, (2)multifaceted local life elements, (3)public welfare and profit sharing, (4)friendly neighborhood community, (5)public safety and professional evaluation, and (6) innovative application. Manager’s practical capacity is in reference to the four qualification listed in Middlemiss and Parrish’s (2010) 「Responsibility for Community Ecological Footprint」: (1) Personal Capacity, (2) Infrastructural Capacity, (3) Organizational Capacity, and (4) Cultural Capacity, making up the framework for capacity and adding the historical city restoration fund’s seven major cultural significance selection requirements for the 「Old House, New Life」 to the infrastructure capacity content. The third section of the questionnaire consists of 3 open questions to understand the managers’ cultural and sustainability community practical process. The questions include「Biggest accomplishments」,「Biggest obstructions」and「Methods for perpetual engagement and development」 This research adopts the questionnaire method of survey, utilizing questionnaires to gauge the general knowledge and capacity of the targeted individuals. 30 paper questionnaires and 226 internet questionnaires were issued, and 66 valid questionnaires were retrieved. Below are the research results based on the data analysis conducted by a SPSS 22 statistics software and discussions of the questionnaires’ open questions: 1、The cultural and sustainable community managers’ cognition performance is appraised as excellent; the managers’ practical capacity is appraised as above average. 2、The managers’ performance excelled in「Public Security and Professional Evaluation」which reflects the high level of understanding towards old constructions among community managers. 3、Among the four aspects of practical capacity, 「Organizational Capacity」receives a lower score, reflecting the dissatisfaction of managers towards the organization practices in the community. 4、The biggest sense of achievement of the managers towards the restoration of old houses stems from discovering and developing the value of old houses, in addition to forging connections between people and the old houses. The biggest obstacle is the lack of funding, the dilapidated state of old houses, plus the attitude and actions of those involved;the sustainable operations and development of these old houses require the cooperation of those involved, relevant task forces for the refurbishment of old houses, and the education of cultural conservation and sustainability.
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永續社區, 認知, 能力, Sustainable Development Communities, Cognition, Capability
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