以Ronald L. Sandler德行取徑探究環境倫理教育的蘊義 Ronald L. Sandler’s Virtue-Oriented Approach and Its Implication on Education for Environmental Ethics

Date
2014
Authors
李岷駿
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Abstract
  本研究殷於楊冠政所述:「環境教育之終極目的乃是培養具有環境倫理信念的人,具備正確的環境態度和價值觀」,培養環境倫理在環境教育中扮演著重要角色。而德行取徑環境倫理(virtue-oriented approach of environmental ethics)的研究旨趣在於描繪,人們面對自然環境時,應基於哪些人格特質-「環境德行」來追求人類與環境的繁榮興旺。由於德行取徑重視倫理的實用目的與情境因素,與環境教育強調通過價值、態度的改變,使人願意積極面對環境問題,擁有解決環境問題的能力不謀而合。因此本研究以「哲學研究法」,對於相關文獻,進行概念分析,以歸納、演繹與詮釋等方法,統整出德行取徑環境倫理的教育目的與內涵。   首先,以Ronald L. Sandler《品格與環境-德行取徑環境倫理》一書作為理論依據,說明「德行取徑的哲學基礎與理論特色」、「環境德行的內容」、「實踐導向的倫理判斷與行動」。而依照德行取徑環境倫理的理論架構,來詮釋環境典範人物-瑞秋‧卡森,對抗DDT化學農藥濫用的案例,具體說明:如何進行倫理判斷、實踐需要哪些德行。並且檢視卡森整體的生活風格和人生態度中,值得學習的環境德行。   研究結果認為,德行取徑以自然主義式的評估、多元目的論之解釋、各類的環境德行,來詮釋環境倫理。環境倫理教育之目的是培養具有實踐環境倫理的能力、陶冶環境德行,追求人與環境的繁榮興旺。而本研究歸納出下列環境德行:一、融入自然,二、自我認識,三、關懷他者,四、理性判斷,五、實踐能力。而德行取徑的倫理教育特色如下:(1)重視學習者主體與經驗、(2)培養社群感與關係、(3)提昇自我內外的覺察能力。
“The ultimate goal of environmental education (E.E.) is to train up the people who have environmental ethics and act with correct environmental attitudes and values.” The declaration made by Dr. Yang points out the role of environmental ethics in E.E.. area. Then, after studying the research about education for environmental ethics in Taiwan, We found that we need more spcefic ethical theory of education for Environmental Ethics. Since virtue-oriented approach of environmental ethics focus on what character should we develop to reach ‘Eudaimonia’, which entails human and environment both flourishing. We require environmental virtues to guiding our life. Such approach emphasizes the ability of practice, is very pragmatic. Additionally, E.E.’s definetion implies growing both positive attitudes and the abilities of problem solving. Therefore, virtue-oriented approach fits E.E.’s goal. As a result, the job of this study is to find out the environmental virtues that practice environmental ethics in people’s life. This study adopt philosophical thinking to operate the following research method: stress concept analysis and the method of inductive/deductive for reference. And first, concluding Ronald L. Sandler’s theory to frame out virtue-oriented environmental ethics. Second, applying this approach to show Rachel L. Carson, environmental exampler’s excellent life and virtues. We tried to answer these topics: how a virtuous person think about environmental ethics, how to make a ethical judgement by virtues, and how to take ethical action with practical wisdom. We get following results: 1.The meaning of education for environmental ethics are: (1)acquire the abilities which can promote both human and environment flourish. (2)cultivate and practice environmental virtues. 2.Environmental virtues are: (1)commune with nature, (2)self understanding, (3)care for others, (4)judging ethical issue by reason, and (5)practice abilities.
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Keywords
環境倫理, 環境倫理教育, 德行取徑, 環境德行, Envrionmental Ethics, Education for Environmental Ethics, Virtue-Oriented Approach, Environmental Virtue
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