國內外環境教育法比較之研究 A Cross Comparative Study of Environmental Education Acts of Taiwan and Other Countries

Date
2010
Authors
吳鈴筑
Wu Ling-Chu
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Abstract
環境教育立法是時代的趨勢,適逢國內外積極推動環境教育專法之際,而且我國剛完成公布環境教育法;鑑於環境教育法重要性,將影響未來環境教育政策的推動。本研究問題為一、國內外環境教育法規範內容有何異同及特色?有何值得我國參採之處?二、我國環境教育法對環境教育有何可能的影響? 本研究採用比較分析法及深度訪談法,分析比較法以美國、巴西、日本、韓國、菲律賓與我國之環境教育法的法律內涵進行比較研究;另為瞭解我國環境教育法對環境教育可能的影響,則利用深度訪談法訪談對環境教育實際運作有多年經驗及深入瞭解之學者、環保團體及政府行政人員之觀點,再進行資料整理、歸納、分析與詮釋。 研究結果為國內外環境教育法之共同性規範為立法目的符合環境教育發展理念、規範對象為全體國民、環境教育主管機關大部分以環境機關主導、重視學校環境教育推動、著重環境教育專業人員養成及提供經費推動環境教育;而差異性規範為社會環境教育推動方式不一、少數國家明列環境教育場所、環境教育認證主體規範不同及有些國家沒有明確經費來源。另外,我國環境教育法推動可能的影響,大多數受訪者認為環境教育法有助於解決所面臨問題、經費規範對環境教育有相當幫助、認證可以提升品質及專業化等。 根據研究結果提出結論,分別為一、我國環境教育法推動重點:將環保概念及環境議題形成信念、運用媒體宣導擴大全民參與、提升政府機關行政效能、增進政府人員環境教育專業能力、提供各種機制促進各界參與及加強學校環境教育課程與人才培訓等。二、施行細則及子法研訂方向:周延完善訂定施行細則、健全公正研訂認證辦法、研擬基金有效運用配套、建立落實4小時環境教育管考機制及妥善規範裁罰基準等。
As a result of the legislation of environmental education is becoming global tendency, the brand-new Environmental Education Acts of Taiwan should play the major role to influence environmental education policies. The questions of the research are: (1) What are the differences of Environmental Education Acts between Taiwan and other foreign countries? What could we learn from other countries? (2)Understand the major impacts of environmental education by the Environmental Education Acts executed. This research is based on interview and comparative analysis methods, comparing the major aspects of the Environmental Education Acts of the United States, Brazil, Japan, Korea, Philippine and Taiwan. By conducting the interview with domestic scholars, green groups, and EPA executives, this research presents possible impacts on environmental education of Taiwanese Environmental Education Acts. Finally, a summary which reflects our opinions and suggestions takes account on both of theory and practice. The results of this research found the common attributes of Environmental Education Acts among countries are: (1) meet environmental education development purpose in EEA legislation, (2) citizens are participating in the program, (3) environment protection agency takes the lead of environmental education, (4) pay attention to the school environment education courses, (5) focus on the development of environment education professors. However, the differences are: (1) outdoors education requisition, (2) the certification criteria of environmental education, (3) some counties lack of budget plan.. About our Environmental Education Acts implementation, interviewers thought it will help a lot of environmental education problems today through budget plan and certification system. Based on the study comes out recommends: Our suggestion is to set up detail rules such as certification criteria, effective budget/fund plan, penalty rule as early as possible. The further study of the implement performance of our Environmental Education Acts is recommended too.
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Keywords
環境教育法, 環境教育政策, 環境教育立法, Environmental Education, Environmental Education Policy, Legislation of Environmental Education, Environmental Education Acts
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