亞斯伯格青少年自我概念之生命故事敘說 Narrative Life Story of Asperger Adolescents’ Self-concept

Abstract
亞斯伯格青少年自我概念之生命故事敘說 摘要 本研究採用質性研究方法,以兩位亞斯伯格青少年Andy與Kevin為研究參與者,述說其生命歷程,從現在的高中、高職生活切入,再請兩位與媽媽回憶過去,最後請兩位分享對未來的期許與嚮往。透過參與兩位生活所觀察到的言行舉止、深度訪談、相關資料蒐集,瞭解其生命故事,探究其內心世界,並建構出兩位的完整自我概念。 不同於以往的國中小生活,Andy及Kevin現在的高中職生活獲得老師與同學的肯定與協助,亞斯伯格症特徵雖仍對家庭、學校生活有所影響,但兩位已能自我肯定與接納,對於未來也有夢想,在家人、老師的瞭解與支持下,朝著目標而努力。 回溯兩位生命故事時發現,Andy及Kevin是在國中階段才被鑑定為「亞斯伯格症」,但亞斯伯格症特徵在兩三歲就已出現,並對其學校、家庭生活造成影響。學校生活中,由於亞斯伯格症特徵,包括社會互動障礙、情緒處理與表達、語言與溝通特色、特殊興趣等,造成兩位常成為同學、老師欺侮的對象,在心理留下不同程度的影響。幸而家長對兩位優勢能力的肯定與栽培,及積極樂觀面對「亞斯伯格症」,給予Andy與Kevin更多的空間、時間,讓他們接納自己的特殊性,並從過去的傷痛中復原。 本研究從四個面向探討亞斯伯格青少年的整體自我概念,Andy發言較為簡短,形於外的情緒、行為較為直接,旁人的肯定與接納影響其學業、情緒、社會自我概念的發展,他的自信與快樂反映在創作的畫作中;而Kevin對於訪談內容侃侃而談,但卻顯現出與外在自信大相逕庭的內在焦慮,對自己的期許甚高,壓力過大,卻又無法說出口,造成在學業、社會、情緒自我概念的負面影響。對Kevin與Andy而言,旁人的鼓勵、支持與協助,都使他們的表現更為穩定與進步。特別的是,Kevin與Andy對於其外表的自信,則為兩位整體自我概念幾近雷同之處。 最後,先分享一般亞斯伯格症者想傳達給讀者瞭解的話,再根據本研究結果,針對師長、教育主管機關及未來研究提出建議。
Narrative Life Story of Asperger Adolescents’ Self-concept Abstract This study is based on qualitative method. Two Asperger adolescents Andy and Kevin participated in this study and told their life stories – from current lives in high schools and together with their mothers, traced backwards into past. At the end, both of them shared their hopes and expectations in the future. Researcher established their complete self-concepts by participating their lives, observing their behaviors, in-depth discussions, collecting related documentations, understanding their life stories and studying their inner worlds. Quite different from lives in elementary and junior high school, Andy and Kevin’s high school lives now are more positive, and more assistance are received from their teachers and classmates. Even though Asperger’s Syndrome still affected their family and school lives, two of them are more positive and better accepted now. They also have dreams for their future. Understood and supported by family members and their teachers, they work ward towards their goals. Looking backwards to their life stories, Researcher found Andy and Kevin were both only diagnosed to have “Asperger’s Syndrome” when they were in junior high school. “Asperger’s Syndrome”, however, appeared as early as two or three years old. The syndrome had affected their school and family lives a lot because the Asperger’s syndromes included problems in interaction with others, emotion control and expression, language and communication differences, special interests etc. which made them humiliating targets by their classmates and teachers, which also resulted different degrees of influences mentally and physically. Fortunately their parents were very supported and well accepted to their strengths. They aggressively and optimistic faced “Asperger’s Syndrome”. They gave Andy and Kevin more opportunity and time and allowed them to accept their own particularities so as to recover from past experiences. This study discusses the self-concept of Asperger adolescents as a whole from four aspects. Andy spoke briefly and his emotion and behaviors were more direct. Because the confirmation and acceptance from others, his schoolwork, emotion, social self-concept development and confidence reflected directly in his paintings. On the other hand, Kevin spoke with fervor and assurance. He however, showed inner anxiety that was quite different compared with his outward appearance. He had great expectation for himself so he was under a great pressure, resulted in a negative effect to his school, social and emotional self-concept. With others encouragement, support and assistance, both Kevin and Andy showed steadily progress. Kevin and Andy were particularly self-confident with their outward appearance, which also matched their self-concept as a whole. Finally, Researcher shared thoughts from Asperger adolescents with readers. Based on the result of this study, researcher proposes recommendations to teachers, competent authority of education department and for the purpose of future study.
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Keywords
亞斯伯格青少年, 自我概念, 生命故事敘說, Asperger adolescents, self-concept, narrative life story
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