以Q方法探索台灣與森林有關之環境教育概念隱含構念

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2010

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  本研究目的在發展台灣與森林有關之環境教育概念構念,屬於探索性研究。研究過程採用Q分類來蒐集受試者對於相關概念的態度,研究對象主要為森林保育與環境教育領域的專家學者、實務工作者以及資深林務人員。以專家審核的方式建立研究工具的表面效度及內容效度後,接著以再測信度建立Q樣本的信度,共得到70條相關概念。本研究以立意取樣的方式,選取30位受試者,共回收24份有效樣本。   本研究以R因素分析,進一步分析研究資料,共萃取出六個主要構念及42條相關概念。此六大構念分別為:一、森林與經營管理(Forest and Management);二、森林保育與利用(Forest Conservation and Utilization);三、人類與森林的互動和影響(Effects of the Human-Forest Interaction);四、環境倫理與永續發展(Environmental Ethics and Sustainable Development);五、森林多元的意義、功能與價值(Multiple Meanings, Functions and Values of Forest Ecosystem);六、森林生態原理(Ecological Principles of Forest Ecosystem)。相關的倫理價值觀已融入在不同構念的概念中,期望學習者在瞭解概念的同時,也能同時將環境倫理的觀念內化到其思考和行為的模式。   研究者進一步針對這六個主要構念與42條概念進行分析,認為此概念架構具備六個主要特質:一、以森林生態為核心價值的整體觀;二、具備永續發展的精神;三、符合台灣在地性的知識;四、以解決環境問題為導向;五、強調科際整合的學習;六、重視價值教育。   期望本研究結果能提供從事與森林相關之環境教育人員之參考,以對台灣有關森林之環境教育有一概括性的瞭解。然而這六個構念以及所包含的概念仍可被進一步檢驗,以確認其構念命名、概念內涵及敘述的充分性與適切性。
  This was an exploratory study of the underlying constructs of basic concepts in environment education of forests in Taiwan. The Q-sort technique was used to collect research subjects’ attitudes toward related concepts. This study’s target population is consisted of the experts of forests, environmental education, experienced practitioners, and foresters. A group of experts assisted in establishing the instrument’s face and content validity. A Test-Retest method was used to decide the reliability of the Q-set. A Q-set including 70 concepts was established. The research instrument was sent by mail to 30 purposive sampling subjects. A total of 24 meaningful data was collected.   R-factor analysis was used to analyze the Q-sort data response. Six underlying constructs and 39 related concepts were extracted and identified. The six constructs are 1. Ecological Principles of Forest Ecosystem, 2. Forest Management and Conservation, 3. Effects of the Human-Forest Interaction, 4. Sustainability of Forests and Environment, 5. Multiple Meanings, Functions and Values of Forest Ecosystem, 6. Forest Resource Limitations and Fragility. Environmental ethics and values were also infused into the content, which can provide the important values of environment for the public to re-think and take action.   The results of this research also revealed some characteristics of environmental education of forests in Taiwan. They are 1.the whole view of environment based on forest ecosystem, 2. sustainability concerned , 3. local scope covered, 4. problem-solving oriented, 5. multi-disciplinary content, 6. value-based education.   The findings of this study may provide the concerned organizations or practitioners as a good reference to hold the whole picture of environmental education of forests in Taiwan. The six constructs and concepts provided in the study are still need to be refined to get more complete and properer content.

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森林, 環境教育, 概念, 構念, forest, environmental education, concept, construct

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