比較Facebook與YouTube氣候變遷議題留言的審議品質

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2021

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氣候變遷傳播是環境傳播中與氣候變遷議題相關的資訊流。隨著媒體科技革新,現今公眾能在社群媒體上進行氣候變遷之資訊交換。近期在社群媒體上受到民眾關注之氣候變遷議題有海平面上升、北極熊生存危機等,亦有青年氣候倡議者出現,Greta Thunberg正是在平台上受到高度關注的意見領袖,除了她發起的氣候變遷罷課運動(Friday For Future)資訊之外,她在聯合國氣候峰會(UN Climate Change Summit 2019)的演說資訊也大量曝光於平台上,引發民眾熱議。然而僅瀏覽留言內容並無法得知公眾在社群媒體上是否對氣候變遷議題進行審議,須以審議指標為基準評估留言的審議品質。本研究發展適用評估社群媒體上中文留言品質之審議指標,藉以分析平台性質與貼文類型與討論的脈絡和品質之間的關聯。本研究旨在探討平台間不同的特性是否影響討論網絡的形成,亦採用質性框架分析法,將留言進行分類,藉此可以更了解留言討論之主軸及脈絡。在研究議題上將海平面上升、北極熊生存危機以及Greta Thunberg聯合國氣候峰會演說內容分成以偏重科學視角的「生態衝擊」以及納入科學以外面向的「青年倡議」兩類別貼文進行分析。研究結果顯示,受平台機制影響,兩平台留言之審議品質有所差異,而留言者對氣候變遷因應之討論內容大多偏向消極態度。從研究者文本閱讀資訊中亦發現情感導向內容爭議小、回應快,但無法達到氣候變遷內容之深度探討;而立場辯論內容爭議大、傳播速度快,能讓使用者聚焦於氣候變遷內容的討論,不過若立場過於偏激,可能造成傳播的反效果。
Climate change communication is the flow of information related to climate change issues in environmental communication. With the innovation of technology, the public can exchange information about climate change on social media now. Recently, sea-level rise and the survival crisis of polar bears are popular issues on social media. Moreover, Greta Thunberg, a young climate opinion leader who launched the climate change strike, has received much attention. In addition to her information on the climate change movement, her speeches at UN Climate Change Summit 2019 sparked much public debate. However, it is impossible to know whether the discussion on social media has promoted the public's deliberation of climate change just by browsing the comments. The research applies indicators to assess the quality of Chinese comments on social media, analyzing the relationship between the nature of the platform and the type of posts, and the context and quality of the discussion. The research aims to explore whether the different characteristics of platforms affect the formation of discussion networks. It also uses the qualitative framework analysis method to classify comments to understand the context deeply. Regarding research topics, sea-level rise, polar bear survival crisis, and Greta Thunberg's speech at the United Nations Climate Summit are divided into two categories: "ecological shocks" from a scientific perspective and "youth initiatives" including non-science. The study results found that due to the influence of the platform mechanism, the deliberation quality of comments on the two platforms is different, and most of the commenters have a negative attitude towards the discussion of climate change. The researcher's text reading information reveals that emotionally-oriented content is less controversial and responded quickly, but it cannot achieve an in-depth discussion of climate change. The content of the position debate is highly controversial but spread quickly, allowing users to focus on the discussion of climate change; while the stance is too extreme, it may cause the counter-effect of communication.

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氣候變遷傳播, 社群媒體, 留言分析, 審議, climate change communication, social media, comments analyses, deliberation

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