水環境教育課程內涵之建構

Abstract

民國85年行政院頒布「現階段水資源政策綱領」,明訂「推廣愛護水資源教育」,整合學校及社會資源將愛水教育運用環境教育原理來推動。受限於水資源為人類所用之意涵,以及改變水的使用行為與態度不易,近年來僅以教育宣導方式進行並未能達到預期成效。是故,擴大水資源意涵,以水環境為主體,增廣水議題關懷面向,將永續利用的教育精神透過環境教育方式來實施「水環境教育」,使其符合環境教育內涵,除了達到學習成效外,更能達成環境教育的目標,產生環境行動以解決環境問題。故本研究發展九年一貫課程水環境教育的課程內涵,讓教師在進行教學時能有參考之依據,學生也能夠完整且有系統的學習。 本研究採用內容分析法。以Chou (1997) 所提出符合我國環境教育概念隱含的六項基本要素:(1)生態原理、(2)承載量與生活品質、(3)自然資源保育、(4)環境管理、(5)環境倫理、(6)承載量與生活品質,加上本研究整理所得:(7)環境問題、(8)行動技能,共八項作為分類的框架,針對國內外具有代表性的水主題課程的課程目標(或教學目標)586條、九年一貫課程各個學習領域與環境教育相關的分段能力指標44條及教材內容72條進行分析,運用內容分析法加以編碼、歸類,並增加愛護水資源教育宣導議題所形成的課程概念及內涵作為補充,綜合彙整後形成完整的水環境教育課程概念及課程內涵。最後,再以九年一貫課程環境教育議題分段能力指標以及我國水資源政策《新世紀水資源綱領》作為檢驗工具進行水環境教育課程概念及內涵的檢驗。 研究結果共形成25個水環境教育課程次要素、84個課程概念、144條具有行為目標導向的課程內涵。課程概念及內涵的分佈以「生態與原理」項下最多,「承載量與生活品質」最少;進一步分析屬於認知領域的基本要素,項下的課程概念與內涵亦佔全體78.57%及84.03%,屬於情意領域的「環境倫理」及技能領域的「行動技能」則偏少。但是,藉由環境教育議題能力指標進行檢驗,各項基本要素彼此間是緊密相關、交互影響,並未侷限於任何一個教育領域。 以環境教育議題能力指標檢驗144條課程內涵,發現能力指標與課程內涵能相互對應,所以本研究所發展的水環境教育課程概念及內涵可以融入九年一貫課程當中實施。此外,藉由《新世紀水資源政策綱領》進行檢驗,水環境教育課程基本要素及概念亦能對應到三大願景、六項政策主張以及八項策略,故可配合政府的水資源政策來進行教育宣導工作。 最後提出本研究建議,藉由在學校教育系統九年一貫課程當中進行多元的水環境教育課程學習,將可補愛護水資源教育之不足,亦同樣能夠配合政府政策來實施,以達到「創造嶄新水文化,建立節水型社會」的我國愛護水資源教育之總體目標。其次,八項水環境教育基本要素可以提供教師在進行環境教育課程設計時的參考;本研究僅發展水環境教育課程概念及內涵,故後續可以進一步針對教學階段、教學內容或教學策略等等諸多議題與課程設計相關的研究。
In 1996 The Executive Yuan of the Republic of China promulgate “the Current Stage Water Resources Policy Initiatives” which specified “Promotion of Water Education”, through integrating school and community resources by using environmental education principle to drive care of water resources education. However constrained by the meaning of water resources for human use, and difficulty of behaviour and attitude change in water usage, efforts through the education channel in recent years was unable to achieve the desired results. By expanding the meaning of water resources, in goals to broaden water-oriented care based on Water Environment, will continue the influence of environmental education through the educational spirit approach to implementing the “Water Environment Education” in line with the substance of environmental education. The approach will not only achieve learning effectiveness, in addition it meets the objectives of environmental education, hence formulate environmental action to address environmental issues. Therefore, this research develop a Grade 1-9 Curriculum of water environment education curriculum content, to provide the basis of teacher guides, in goal to provide a complete and systematic learning experience for the students. This research adopt Content Analysis. Base on the paper by Chou (1997), in line with the national environmental education concept that covers 6 fundamental elements: (1) Ecology and Principles, (2) Interaction and Interdependence, (3) Resources Conservation, (4) Environmental Management, (5) Environmental Ethics, (6) Carrying Capacity and Quality of Life. In addition, adding 2 new elements from this research: (7) Environmental Problems, (8) Execution Skills. By using a total of 8 elements as the classification framework, the research attempts to analyse the popular water education curriculum contents or teaching objectives at home and from abroad, and the Grade 1-9 Curriculum in various Learning Stages and Environmental Education-related Competence Indicators or Benchmarks and sub-materials content. Applying contents analysis methodology, to codes, to classifies, and to increase courses based on care for water resources concept as a complement to the comprehensive curriculum contents, formed a complete water environment education courses and curriculum content. Finally, a nine-year environmental education curriculum that has been sub-indicators, as well as national water resources policy, “"Water Program of the new century” as a test tool for testing. The research results are 25 elements of water environment education curriculum, 84 course concepts, with 144 acts of goal-oriented curriculum content. Further analysis using environmental education indicators on 144 courses connotation, the research found the ability to target and curriculum content can be reciprocated, so the development of the Water environment education curriculum content can be integrated into the implementation of nine-year course. In addition, through “The Water Resources Policy Initiatives in the New Century” testing, water environment education curriculum and the concept of basic elements also corresponds to the vision of three, six and eight policy advocated strategy, it can meet the Government's policy for water resources Education goals. Through nine years of school education system, and a diversified courses of the water environment education, the research believe we will be able to “create a new water culture, the establishment of a water-saving society” of water resources education overall goal.

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Keywords

水環境教育, 愛護水資源教育, 環境教育基本要素, 課程內涵, 課程概念, Water Environment Education, Water Resource Education, the Fundamental Element of Environmental Education, Curriculum Content, Curriculum Concept

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