無痕山林七大準則中尊重野生動植物之行為理論研究-以陽明山國家公園遊客為例

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2020

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有鑒於目前國內外的研究當中,專門探討特定親環境行爲,特別是戶外休閒遊憩方面的研究與相關文獻內容較少,本研究欲利用無痕山林(Leave No Trace, LNT)七大理論當中,尊重野生動植物(Respect Wildlife)的這一項特定行為作為研究基礎,以計畫行為理論驗證(Theory of Planned Behavior, TPB),探討造訪陽明山國家公園的遊客對於尊重野生動植物的行為意圖(Behavioral Intention)是受到哪些規範的影響。本研究以問卷調查法進行研究,主要以SPSS23系統進行資料分析,採用描述性統計(Descriptive Statistics)與推論性統計(Inferential Statistics),以及運用結構方程式模型(Structural Equation Modeling, SEM)的方法,分析並整合問卷調查的結果。 問卷調查之內容效度方面請三位專家學者進行審查,信度方面則是以項目分析法分析各個題目的p值,然而各題目p值皆小於0.05具有顯著性,並且各題目在極端組檢驗法的Cronbach Alpha皆大於0.7,因此調查題目皆適用。 然而,進行路徑係數分析亦有其顯著性,t值就是路徑係數的顯著性。結果表明了態度直接影響行為意圖並呈現顯著(t = 2.17),主觀規範不影響行為意圖且兩者之間沒有顯著差異(t = 1.01),知覺行為控制直接影響行為意圖且兩者之間呈現極顯著(t = 9.33),知覺行為控制不影響行為且不具顯著差異(t = 1.49),行為意圖直接強烈地影響行為並呈現極顯著(t = 3.82)。因此,可以得知,遊客在尊重野生動植物的態度與知覺行為控制直接影響行為意圖,行為意圖將直接影響行為表現;主觀規範不直接影響行為意圖,知覺行為控制不直接影響行為。 影響遊客在尊重野生動植物方面,態度表現的因子,可能與遊客認為尊重野生動植物有利於後代子孫的永續發展與福祉有關係;主觀規範則不是影響遊客行為表現的主要原因;不管在知覺行為控制、行為意圖與行為表現方面,遊客對於不干擾、不碰觸、不餵食野生動物,以及不攀折花木、不踐踏草坪都有相當高的認同度;雖然遊客可以知覺尊重野生動植物的容易程度,但是不一定能夠做到。在陽明山國家公園中,女性遊客在尊重野生動植物的行為表現優於男性遊客,聽說過無痕山林相關內容者的知覺行為控制與態度優於沒聽說過者。
In view of the studies on environmental behaviors are quite much nowadays, there are few studies on the specific environmental behaviors of outdoor recreation. Therefore, this research was conveyed one of the particular behavior of the LNT’s seven rules, renowned as respecting wildlife to explore how visitors concern about respecting wildlife or their behavioral intention when they visited within the Yangmingshan National Park. This study was used questionnaire to conduct this survey, detecting correspondingly the data mainly analyzed by SPSS23 system. Such as descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the questionnaire. Before the issuance, the validity and reliability analyses of the questionnaire have conducted to be established. Three experts and scholars were asked to review the validity. The reliability analysis was based on the item-analysis and the p-values of each topic which was less than 0.05. The Cronbach alpha of each topic in comparisons of extreme groups was greater than 0.7, so the survey questions were applicable. However, the path analysis has its significance. The t-value is the significance of the path analysis. The results of path analysis showed that attitude and behavioral intentions were significant (t = 2.17), besides perceived behavioral control and behavioral intentions were significant (t = 9.33). The subjective norms and behavioral intentions were not significant (t = 1.01), indicating that there was no relationship between subjective norms and behavioral intentions. The perceived behavioral control and behavior could not be turned significant (t = 1.49), indicating that perceived behavioral control and behavior have no direct impact. Finally, behavioral intentions and behavior were significant (t = 3.82). In addition, the factors that influence tourists 'attitudes towards respecting wildlife may be related to tourists' believed that respecting wildlife was beneficial to the sustainable development and welfare of future generations; subjective norms were not the main reason that affects the performance of tourists; In terms of perceived behavioral control, behavioral intentions, and behavior performance, tourists had a high degree of recognition beyond disturbing, touching, feeding wildlife and also not trampling on the lawn. Although tourists can perceive how easy to conduct which they can respect wildlife, tourists may not be able to contribute this pro-environmental behavior. However, the attitude and perceived behavioral control of those who had previously learned of the LNT were better than that of who never heard of the LNT. Moreover, the female tourists ' behavior were better than the male tourist on respecting wildlife.

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無痕山林, 行為意圖, 計畫行為理論, Leave No Trace, Behavioral Intention, Theory of Planned Behavior

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