臺灣地區環境學習中心類型之機構狀況調查

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2012

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本研究目的旨在瞭解臺灣地區環境學習中心類型之機構及其狀況,包括此類機構的經營形式及規模、所在地的環境特色及場域設施、提供的環境教育方案及服務內容、聘任的環境教育方案人員的服務狀況。研究採用問卷調查法進行,以立意取樣決定98個研究對象,以郵遞問卷方式施測,施測結束後,利用社會科學統計套裝軟體SPSS12.0程式進行數據資料分析及整理。研究結果發現如下: 在整體經營管理部份:臺灣地區環境學習中心的分佈以郊區為主,經營型態以公務單位主導類型較多,大部分中心的營運資金來源為政府專案經費;年度營運花費則多在500萬元以下。足夠的專業人員、財務支援及多元教學方案被認為是能夠順利營運的原因。社區參與部份以推動地方永續發展以及協助提升居民環境意識為主要參與方式。 在環境特色與場域設施部份:約有四成左右的中心面積在11公頃以下;最常使用到的環境類別為森林環境。大部分的機構都具有多功能教室或會議室之類的設施,以提供服務對象使用,而室內空間不足是最多機構在服務人數限制上的主因。 在環境教育方案及服務部份:主要的服務對象以小學生為主,多來自鄰近地區,服務類型以不超過一天的解說、半日及一日活動為最大宗。方案主題以自然體驗及生物多樣性為主。利用夥伴諮詢審查以及回饋單則是目前主要用來確保及評估方案的方式。 在環境教育人員部份:有七成以上的機構擁有全職環境教育人員,人數以3~5人為最多,工作內容以方案設計、執行方案教學為主。還需要增加全職環境教育人員的機構約有4成。擁有非全職環境教育人員的機構亦有七成,人數以3~5人為最多,其中以對志工的依賴度最大。工作內容以執行教學方案以及一般顧客服務為主。還需要增加非全職環境教育人員的機構約有五成。 本研究結果有助於構築出此類機構在臺灣全面性之整體輪廓,可做為改善、整合或新設環境學習中心的參考依據,亦能提供教育人員對此類機構的瞭解進而有助於規劃教學藍圖,而且可做為後續相關研究的基礎資料。
The purpose of the research is to identify and characterize the components of the environmental learning centers in Taiwan. The research is survey based which is determined by purposive sampling of 98 subjects. The survey is mailed to the subjects. Then, the social science statistical software, SPSS12.0, is used to analyze and organize the data collected. The result showed as follows: The overall operation and management: The centers located mainly in the suburbs, and most of their business forms are led by the government agencies. The centers’ financial resource comes from capital funds for government projects; the annual operating cost for a center is approximately NT.500 million. Adequate professional personnel, financial support, and diverse teaching programs are considered to be the main factors for a smooth operation of a learning center. In the level of local communities, encouraging communities’ members to participate in sustainable development and help them to rise up the environmental awareness. The characteristics of the environmental fields and facilities: Approximately 40% of the centers in Taiwan have land area under 11 hectares. The most commonly used environmental field is forest environment. Majority of the centers have a multi-purpose room/ meeting room. The research also indicates that the limited indoor space is the main reason for most centers to serve their clients to maximum. The environmental education programs and services: the main audience of the education programs and services target students between ages 7 to 12. Most of audiences come from near communities. Most education programs of a center are planed either half-day or one day service. The programs are primary designed for audiences to have hand-on experience with the nature, and understand the biological diversity. Currently, peer evaluation and feedback are the main methods used to ensure and evaluate those education programs. The environmental education personnel: there are more than 70% of the centers in Taiwan have full-time environmental education personnel. The establishment of the education personnel in each center is up to 3 to 5 person. Their job description is mainly focusing on education program design, and program implementation. The centers that need to increase their full-time environmental education staff is about 40%. The percentage of the part-time education personnel and volunteers is also near 70% among all the centers in Taiwan. Most of the centers mainly rely on volunteers among the 70%. In each center, there are about 3 to 5 staffs are part-time staffs, and volunteers. Their job is to implement education programs, and basic customer service. The need to increase part-time staffs of the centers is about 50%. The study gives a current overall understanding of the environmental learning centers in Taiwan. It can serve as a reference in the future to improve, integrate, and design a new environmental learning center. It also can provide general education personnel a better understanding of those learning centers, and help them to design a better education program for the future generation.

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環境學習中心, 自然中心, 環境教育, environmental learning center, nature center, environmental education

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