從地球系統教育看我國科學課程與環境教育概念

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2004

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本研究以內容分析法從地球系統教育的角度,分析九年一貫課程自然與生活科技領域之課程綱要以及環境教育概念,包括能力指標與教材細目。在課程能力指標方面,分析發現其與地球系統教育的概念架構內涵有相當一致之處;但在欣賞、環境責任以及生涯發展等方面較有不同;情意層次不顯著;具有議題探索的特質而較少提及資源利用的態度,且缺乏對科技發展的省思及對人與環境關係的認知;在科技發展上重視科學的應用,及與生活的關係。在教材細目方面,分析顯示其兼具科學相關認知及態度的養成;包含永續發展的意涵,提倡運用科技來解決實際問題;與地球科學學科相關者較少;具有永續發展的議題探索特質。在歐爾曼環境教育概念綱領方面,分析發現其著重生態與保育相關知識而情意的層次不明;偏向以人的角度看環境,主張負責任環境態度;著重對資源的認識,瞭解與管理,提倡資源永續利用;重視科技發展的價值觀與態度,具備對科技發展的省思;提到地球太空船的概念,具有地球素養的意涵。在我國現階段環境教育概念綱領方面,分析發現其以生態學及永續發展相關認知、態度為主;在欣賞的層面上不足,未有欣賞的概念;著重資源的瞭解與利用,提及人口議題以及環境政策、經濟永續發展的觀念;主張應為永續利用以及降低環境破壞而發展科技;從生態學角度重視地球的循環過程,強調平衡的觀念;視地球為一個系統;提倡負責任環境行為;重視生態學知識。以課程能力指標與教材細目相較,教材細目對科技的檢討方面,雖不直接,但具議題探討的性質,亟待教學者的發揮。歐爾曼的環境教育概念綱領注重生態知識,角度明顯為資源保育,與瞭解二最為相關,故對人口問題、管理責任都有提到,也對科學提出反省;但在生態系以外,並沒有對整個環境整體思考的意涵。與我國概念綱領相較,我國除了也重視環境管理,更進步地提到永續觀念、地球系統的觀念,與社會面向的連結更多、更將觸角伸到社會議題的層次。 基於以上結果,本研究建議教學者,在現行課程綱要的使用上應著重認知(教材細目)與能力(指標)的一致與配合,考慮情意培養、增加人與自然的關係的內容,思考人類及角色科技的角色,朝向永續發展的新思維,採取議題探索教學。考慮職業發展的準備,細分意涵較廣的指標,利用地球系統概念架構來設計教學。在環境教育概念綱領的內容方面,建議注重情意的培養,擴充到保育教育以外更廣泛的學習,並配合科學教育為認知基礎。對後續研究的建議,在研究對象與主題方面建議對教學模組、網路教學、教師進修內容等方面進行研究。
The Earth System Science Education is a branch of educational reformation. This research adopts the nature science and living technology domain of Guide 1-9 Curriculum, and Allman’s and Taiwan environmental education concepts, with the Earth System Education’s perspective. This research finds that the standard of competencies in Guide 1-9 Curriculum is in accordance with ESE’s concept structure significantly, but it rarely mentions natural appreciation, environmental responsibility and career development. Its affection component is obscure, and it prefers the issue exploration to the attitude toward resource use. In addition, it fails to reflect on technology and relationship between human and the environment. Moreover, it emphasizes scientific application in the daily life. In examing teaching material suggestions in Guide 1-9 Curriculum, this research finds that it cultivaties science-related understanding and interduce the meaning of sustainable development. It also advocates solving practical problems with technology and leads sustainable development issue exploration, but it has little to do with Earth Science. In analysis of Allman environmental education concepts, this research also shows that Allman emphasize ecological and conservation knowledge, and seldom mention affection component. Allman tends to view the environment from human’s viewpoint. He advocates a responsible environmental attitude, emphasizes sustainable use, respects the value of technologys, and refers to the concept of “earth spaceship,” which symbolizes earth literacy. As for the present National Environmental Education Concepts, this research finds that they prioritize the ecological knowledge and sustainable development. Besides, they emphasize to understand and wisely use resources, concern the population issue, environmental policies, and economical sustainable development, as well as advocate developing technology to minimize the damage of the environment. What’s more, they ask for responsible environmental behaviors, emphasize recycling and balance of earth system, see earth as a whole system, and pay lots of attention to ecology. In the end, this research suggests teachers combine cognition with ability and increase the affective development. For doing this, teachers can unite nature science and living technology domain with Arts and Humanities Area, and emphasize the relationship between human and nature; students need to think about the roles of human and technology, take the new thinking of sustainable development. The content of environmental concepts should lay stress on cultivating affection, extend beyond conservation and cooperate with the science education as the base of cognition. For the follow-up researches, they are suggested to continue on the study of teaching module, the network teaching, and teachers’ self-training.

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地球系統教育, 九年一貫課程自然與生活科技領域, 能力指標, 環境教育概念, earth system education, living technology domain of Guide 1-9 Curriculum, standard of competencies, environmental education concepts

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