Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/88100
Title: 民主化下的台灣公民課程民主政治內涵之演變----國中階段公民類科教科書的探討
The study of the changes of the contents of democratic politics in Taiwanese Civic Education under democratization : Analyze the textbooks of social studies and civic courses in junior high school.
Authors: 鄧毓浩 博士
陳宛秀
Chen Wan-Hsiu
Keywords: 民主政治內涵
教科書
內容分析法
Contents of democratic politics
Textbook
Content analysis
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 本研究旨在探討民主化下的台灣公民課程民主政治內涵之演變,以國中階段公民類科教科書作為研究對象,透過文獻探討及內容分析法,了解威權體制時期、民主轉型時期及民主鞏固時期,國中公民教科書的民主政治內涵演變情形。 研究結果如下: 壹、民主政治認知內涵分析 本研究分析各版教科書的民主政治認知內涵,有以下四點結果: 一、民主政治認知內涵呈現形式除了89年南一版外,其餘各版皆以主要主題較多,74年版、89年康軒版及89年南一版,主要、次要主題內容比率相近。 二、各版教科書民主政治認知內涵主類目之重點為「民主政治的基本原理」。 三、各版教科書的民主政治認知內涵的分佈,皆以國中二年級(八年級)出現次數最多,顯示國中二年級(八年級)是教導民主政治認知內涵最主要的時期。 四、「法律主治」、「人民主權」、「憲法中的基本人權」是各版的重要主題;「責任政治」、「政黨體制」、「選舉制度」和「世界公民」的主題從民主轉型期的83年版後才開始受到重視,並延續到民主鞏固期的版本。 貳、民主政治態度內涵分析 本研究分析各版教科書的民主政治態度內涵,有以下四點結果: 一、民主政治態度內涵呈現形式除了74年版的主要主題多於次要主題外,其他各版皆以次要主題為主。 二、主類目之重點, 74年版以「對政治權威的信守」為主; 83年版以及89年康軒版和南一版的教材內容皆以「對民主的信守」為主。 三、各版教科書的民主政治態度內涵的分佈,皆以國中二年級(八年級)出現次數最多,顯示國中二年級(八年級)是教導民主政治態度內涵最主要的時期。 四、「守法的精神」是各階段的主題重點;「尊重政府權威」的主題僅在74年版才是重點內涵;「愛國心(國家認同)」隨著民主化的進展而有減少的趨勢;「政治參與的意願」與「多元價值」的主題,在民主轉型後,逐漸受到重視。 參、民主政治實踐內涵分析 本研究分析各版教科書的民主政治實踐內涵,有以下四點結果: 一、民主政治實踐內涵呈現形式,在各版都是以次要主題為主。 二、主類目之重點, 74年版以「生活面」為主, 83年版及89年康軒版和南一版都以「制度面」為主,但兩者在各版皆各佔約一半的比例。 三、各版教科書的民主政治實踐內涵的分佈,皆以國中二年級(八年級)出現次數最多,顯示國中二年級(八年級)是教導民主政治實踐內涵最主要的時期。 四、「實現民主政體」、「落實法治」、「具有表達意見與理解他人的能力」各版都相當重視;「具有參與政治討論與理性協商的能力」、「具有團體運作與執行的能力」,則有加強的必要。 肆、策略類目分析 本研究分析各版教科書的民主政治內涵的編寫策略,有以下二點結果: 一、量的部分:各版本最主要的編寫策略以「說明解釋」,「分項陳述」,「比喻或舉例說明」及「問題形式」為主;較少使用的是「相互對比」、「引述法律名稱或條文」及「類推與歸納」;只出現於威權體制時期的74年版和民主轉型期的83年版的類目有「選擇撰述」、「典型表揚」、「權威或規範語句」。 二、質的部分:各版教科書隨著台灣民主化的進展,語詞使用趨於多元及生活化,教材內容及活動設計更為活潑多樣化,並採用流行口語化的文字,貼近學生生活經驗,取材也突破威權政治下的侷限性。其他在版本、作業形式、照片使用、族群、國家認同等的描寫各版都有不同的特色。 伍、台灣民主化發展對國中公民類科教科書民主政治內涵演變的影響 本研究分析台灣民主化發展對教科書的民主政治內涵演變的影響,有以下四點結果: 一、認知內涵:民主轉型時期,選舉與政黨活動蓬勃發展,因此「民主政治體制與運作程序」的類目,如「政黨體制」、「政治平等」、「責任政治」、「選舉制度」、「利益團體」等主題都有增加。民主鞏固時期重視以民為主的精神,所以「人民主權」就成為教科書主要的主題內涵。 二、態度內涵:威權體制時期,以威權統治為主,強調「對政治權威的信守」,以愛國家、守法守紀等內涵為重點。民主轉型後,政治參與擴大,強調「對民主的信守」。民主鞏固階段,要對民主程序有高度信任感,以「對民主的信守」為主要內涵,但對於國家認同難以形成共識,所以在現階段的教科書中很少提及「愛國心(國家認同)」的內涵。 三、實踐內涵:民主轉型時期到民主鞏固時期,是台灣民主發展最快速以及高度發展的時期,所以「實現民主政體」的主題所佔比例最高。 四、策略類目: (一)「量」的部分,威權體制時期以維持威權體制,鞏固政權為目的,教材中較常使用權威性的編寫策略,但這些策略在民主轉型後就大為減少,在民主鞏固時期的教材就不再出現。 (二)「質」的部分,在「教科書版本的演變」、「語詞使用的轉變」及「國家認同內涵的轉變」上隨著民主化發展而有不同的演變。 根據研究結果,提出以下建議: 壹、對未來教科書發展民主政治內涵教材之建議 一、在課文中傳達法律主治的真正意涵 二、由學生角度看待社會正義問題 三、由學生角度來說明世界公民的觀念與素養 四、透過台灣族群問題的說明,學習包容與尊重 五、說明台灣在國際上努力的成績,加強學生國家認同的體認 六、加強民主生活實踐能力 七、善用多元化的編寫技巧 貳、對後續研究者的建議 一、研究對象方面,可針對教師手冊以及各家出版社編輯理念等做研究分析,並擴大研究範圍,此外亦可觀察連續幾年,學校使用率最高的是那一些出版社,其教材內容有何特別之處,而這些教材內容與統編本的教材內容有哪些差異。 二、研究方法方面,後續研究者可用其他研究方法,以進一步瞭解教科書實際運用層面的相關問題。 三、研究工具方面,可擴大相關文獻分析,邀請學者專家參與討論,研發更為完整的民主政治內涵分析類目表以及策略類目表,使教科書的分析更加周延。
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of the contents of democratic politics in Taiwanese civic education under democratization. The focus of the study is the textbooks of social studies and civic courses in junior high school. The civic textbooks that are analyzed in the study include those published in 1985(authoritative system period), 1994(democratic transition period)and 2001 (Kang-Hsuan textbooks and Nan-I textbooks)(democratic consolidated period). Literature reviews and content analytic method are used to analyze and compare the knowledge, attitude(value)and skill(practice)contents of democratic politics of the high school civic textbooks from three periods of the Taiwanese Civic Education. The findings are as follows : 1. Knowledge Contents a. The knowledge contents of democratic politics are mostly presented as the primary subject, except in the Nan-I textbooks. The ratio of democratic politics as the primary and secondary subjects are quite similar in the 1985 and 2001 textbooks. b. The subject of “ Basic Principles of Democracy ” are considered important in all textbooks. “Globalization and the World Outlook ” are considered important in the 2001 textbooks. c. The knowledge contents of democratic politics are discussed most in textbooks for the second grade(8 grade)in junior high school. This shows that the second grade is the primary period to impart knowledge contents of democratic politics to students. d. The subjects of “ Rule of Law ”, “ Civic Rights ”and “ Basic Human Rights of the Constitution ” are considered important in each textbook. The subjects of “ Responsibility Politics ”, “ Political Party System ”, “ Electoral System ” and “Citizens of World” are considered important in the 1994 and 2001 textbooks. 2. Attitude Contents a. The attitude contents of democratic politics are mostly presented as secondary subjects, except in the 1985 textbooks. b. The subject of “ Commitments to Political Authority ” was the main subject of 1985 textbooks. After democratization in Taiwan, the subject of “ Commitments to Democracy ” became the main subject of the 1994 and 2001 textbooks. c. The attitude contents of democratic politics are discussed most in the textbooks for the second grade(8 grade)in junior high school. This shows that the second grade is the primary period to impart attitude content of democratic politics to students. d. The subject of “ The Spirit of obedience to the law ” is considered important in every textbook. After democratization in Taiwan, the subject of “ Patriotism ” is discussed less and less in each textbook. 3. Practice Contents a. The practice contents of democratic politics are presented mostly as the secondary subjects. b. The subject of “ The Life Section ” is discussed slightly more than the subject of “ The System Section ”in 1985 textbooks. This ratio is reversed in 1994 and 2001 textbooks. Overall, the ratio of these two subjects are quite similar in each textbook. This shows that both subjects are of equal importance in all textbooks. c. The practice contents of democratic politics are discussed most in textbooks of the second grade(8 grade)in junior high school. This shows that the second grade is the primary period to impart practice contents of democratic politics to students. d. The subjects of “ Achieve the Democratic Regime ”, “ Realize the Rule of Law ”and “ Possess the Ability of Expressing Opinions and Understanding Others ” are considered important in every textbook. The subjects of “ Possess the Ability of Discussing Politics and Rational Consultation ”and “ Possess the Ability of working with the team ” are discussed very little in each textbook. 4. Strategies of Textbook Compilation a. The strategies of “ Exposition and Explanation ”, ” Itemizing Narrative ”, “ Illustration by Examples ” and “ The Question Form ” are used in most textbooks. The strategies of “ Contrast and Comparison ”, “ Quotes the Law ” and “ Deduction and Induction ” are used less. The strategies of “ Choose to Write ”, “The Typical Commendation ” and “ The Authoritative and restrictive sentences ” are only used in 1985 and 1994 textbooks. b. After democratization in Taiwan, there is more variety of content and activities in textbooks. According to the results of this study, several suggestions are offered as follow : 1. Suggestions for textbook contents of democratic politics a. Project the crux of “ Rule of Law ”. b. Approach the question of “ Social Justice ” from the student’s perspective. c. Define the concept of “ Citizens of World ” from the student’s perspective. d. Respect multicultural perspectives. e. Emphasize the concept of patriotism. f. Develop the student’s ability to practice democratic politics. g. Use multiple strategies of textbook compilation. 2. Suggestions for follow-up studies a. Regarding the study objects, follow-up researchers could keep focusing on the ideas in the textbooks that are released by different publishers. Also they could expand their research to compare the most popular textbooks used in recent years with the textbooks previously published by government. b. Follow-up researchers could adopt more study methods. c. Follow-up researchers could expand their literature reviews and invite more scholars to develop more comprehensive categories of democratic politics in order to make the textbook analysis more complete.
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