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Title: 末法佛教的守護者—湛然圓澄 《魚兒佛》中觀音信仰之研究
Authors: 徐一智
Hsu, Yi-zhi
Issue Date: Dec-2014
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 晚明圓澄《魚兒佛》中的觀音崇拜,即是一個地域色彩極濃的案例。從法師與其朋友們的分佈,可知道這個觀音信仰傳播,集中在浙江省,更全居住於錢塘江等河流、湖泊與海邊內。浙江實為魚、米之鄉,故圓澄法師的觀音信仰亦染及漁鄉特色。像宣說魚籃觀音手提魚籃,度化漁人等,乃一位針對性極強的觀音形象,很適合於錢塘江等流域沿岸宣化。此外,又習以魚籃,來說明觀音信仰實行的理論,從中能窺知觀音信仰裏,僧伽倡導、寺方供養與信徒應有的態度。圓澄法師更把觀音信仰當作一個各宗融合的連接點,倡行觀音信仰實可修福又修慧,既可救度末法,又能滿足信徒現世利益與淨土法門之持習。觀音又屬惡世裏,教徒守戒律與否的見證及守護者。以當地人的生活經驗,申論觀音崇信的原理。因此,可見到圓澄法師《魚兒佛》的觀音信仰,實充滿浙江當地之地域特質。
This paper purposes to argue that Yuancheng’s belief of Guanyin in Yu Er Fo (The Fish Buddha) was a classic example of regional belief. The dwelling places of Yuancheng and his fellow Buddhist friends betrayed that their characterization of the Guanyin belief corresponded to their geographical associations. Their housing scattered over areas around the Qiantang River, lakes in and the seashores of the Zhejiang Province, where were notorious for their fishing and agricultural industries. These geographical characteristics affected the Guanyin belief, such as Yu Lan (fish basket) Guanyin who was depicted as a figure carries a fish basket in hand and gives helps and guidance to the fishermen. Obviously, the image of Yu Lan Guanyin was shaped specifically to target the coastal areas near Qiantang River. Yuancheng creatively used fishing activities and fish basket to exemplify the doctrines of Guanyin in terms of the proper attitudes toward monks,temples and Buddhist believers. Moreover, Yuancheng employed the Guanyin belief as a connecting principle to integrate all branches of Buddhist doctrines, advocating that the practice of the Guanyin belief could cultivate both blessing and wisdom. Not only would it provide salvation for the believers in the time of Dharma decline, it might also satisfy the earthly interests of the believers and benefit their exercise of the way of the Pure Land. Above all, Guanyin in Yuancheng’s argument became a moderator overand a guardian of the Buddhist believers in this malevolent world, who is responsible for judging whether a believer is faithful in his Buddhist practice. In a word, based on the living experience of the local people,Yuancheng developed his specific Guanyin belief in his Yu Er Fo, in which the regional characteristics of Zhejiang province were mirrored evidently.
Other Identifiers: 22FBF26A-D13D-811A-A1C6-34FDB99C3FA9
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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