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Title: 康熙皇帝的焦慮―立儲、開邊和歷史定位
Other Titles: Anxiety-driven Politics: Emperor K’ang-his’s Dealing with Heir-selection, Frontier Expansion and Historical Evaluation
Authors: 葉高樹
Yeh, Kao-shu
Issue Date: Dec-2015
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 本文以鞏固皇權為論述的主軸,選定引發康熙皇帝焦慮情緒且彼此交互作用的立儲、開邊和歷史定位等三個議題,借用心理學對「焦慮」的詮釋,剖析康熙皇帝面臨威脅時產生的不安,以及持續與之對抗的努力。康熙三○年代以降,因立儲造成皇帝和皇太子胤礽之間的權力關係緊張,而皇帝親征噶爾丹期間胤礽的表現令人失望, 遂衍生皇權分化的危機。其次,來自準噶爾部噶爾丹及其後繼者持續對清朝施加的軍事壓力,阻礙帝國邊疆開拓的進程,也使得皇權的擴張受到挑戰。正由於儲位懸而未定,開邊未竟其功,導致康熙皇帝晚年十分在意後世對他的評價,故而以皇帝的權威預先勾勒出個人的歷史定位。這三件事之間互相關聯,都對康熙皇帝形成壓力和困擾,他面對問題的態度及其選擇的應變之道,當是值得研究的課題。因此,本文擬將討論的重點集中在:一、威脅:皇權分化與邊境生變;二、面對:蒙藏問題與廢立太子;三、競爭:評價歷史與自我評價,以此三個面向對康熙皇帝進行心理層面的分析。
This paper examines Emperor K’ang-his’s heir-selection, frontier expansion and arrangement for his historical evaluation to explain his reaction to the long lasting anxiety. Using the psychological concept of “anxiety,” this paper explores three aspects that troubled Emperor K’ang-hsi’s latter part of reign. First, after K’ang-hsi was crowned over 30 years, tensions between the emperor and the crown prince intensified for the crown prince failed his task when K’ang-his went on the Galden expedition. Second, when the increasing military pressure from Junggar Khanate Galdan and their successors impeded the empire’s frontier expansion, the imperial authority was challenged not only from outer military campaigns, but also from the unsettled heir succession process, which also led to, thirdly, the anxiety of K’ang-hsi emperor’s reflection upon his own historical evaluation. Through resolution of internal power struggle, diversion of imperial frontier expansion towards inner Asia, and exercise of influence upon possible historical evaluation in advance, Emperor K’ang-hsi copied with his anxieties active measures in order to consolidate imperial power.
Other Identifiers: 1EA5EAC4-C8EA-F5AF-2B1C-6805D8B1FDDD
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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