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The Positions and Personnel of Liuwai in the Jin Dynasty
This article mainly discusses the ＂liuwai＂ (流外) in the Jin Dynasty. Beginning in the Sui period, the positions and personnel of the government were sorted by a sequence. The positions and personnel were divided into two classes: ＂liunei＂ (流內) and ＂liuwai＂. The positions and personnel of the liunei were graded into a nine-ranked (＂jiupin＂, 九品) system, and ＂liunei＂ personnel were ranked officials (品官). Compared with the ＂liunei＂, for the most part, none of the ＂liuwai＂ positions had their own ranks, and almost all of the ＂liuwai＂ personnel were not ranked officials. Lastly, the classes and the positions of appointees were constantly aligned, so the ＂liunei＂ personnel would never be assigned to the ＂liuwai＂ posts. But during the Jin period, the regulations of the class system were different. First, there were many ＂liuwai＂ positions that had their own rank, and the boundary between the ＂liunei＂ and ＂liuwai＂ was not ranked and non-ranked. Second, many ranked-officials were assigned to the ranked or the high level non-ranked ＂liuwai＂ positions institutionally, and the Jin court would grant the appointees of the high level non-ranked ＂liuwai＂ positions the qualification of ＂you chushen＂ (有出身), which was originally an official qualification in the Sung dynasty.
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