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Chen Li-fu and the Early 1930s' Tutelage Controversy
|Abstract:||1930 年代初期陳立夫關於訓政爭議的相關言論乃是特殊時空下的產物，也是當時各種相關言論相互競逐的一部分。對陳立夫而言，這是訓政理論之爭，也是黨治和蔣介石的權力之爭。在1930 年代初期的訓政爭議思潮中，陳立夫重述孫中山的「伊訓」譬喻，堅持國民黨的訓政；其並強調北伐統一後規劃全國同步實施訓政的錯誤，認為六年的訓政期限乃是「假定值」，指出中國的現狀實是「軍政尚未結束」、「訓政尚未開始」；在軍政尚未結束時機，國民黨應賦予軍事統帥絕對權威，使其成為「軍事重心」。此外，他特別檢視訓政黨政最高權力機構－中政會及國民政府的運作效能，主張修正現行訓體制，建立「駕馭核心」。陳立夫1930 年代初期訓政爭議中的言論，與其說是對是否結束訓政、實行憲政作出回應，不如說是在堅持國民黨訓政的前提下，企圖從理論上解決北伐以來國民黨內長期的黨權、軍權糾葛以及領袖之爭的困擾，並嘗試從訓政體制的修正確立黨治權威的新模式。他所最關懷者，不是訓政是否合理可行，而是如何鞏固國民黨的黨治權威，並進一步將離散分裂的國民黨凝聚在以蔣介石為核心的領導下，為蔣「正名」。其從強化威權出發，與訓政中的民主意涵顯然背道而馳。這是陳立夫及蔣派人士的刻意追求、孫中山的「遺教」及其「權威」的示範，也是1930 年代國際獨裁潮流推波助瀾的結果。|
Chen Li-fu’s discourse of the early 1930s concerning the political tutelage was the product of unique temporal and geographical circumstance. It was one of the many relevant commentaries competing for ideological dominance at the time. For Chen Li-fu, this was not only a theoretical dispute over political tutelage, but also a struggle to defend the single-party rule of the KMT and Chiang Kai-shek’s authority. In the early 1930s, Chen Li-fu restated Sun Yat-sen’s analogy of “Yiyin instructing Taijia (伊尹訓太甲)” as a means of opposing an end to the KMT’s political tutelage. He stressed that implementing the nationwide tutelage after the northern expeditions was a mistake, and that a six-year period of political tutelage was merely a “theory”. He pointed out that China was still in the stage of “military rule” and had yet to progress to a state of “political tutelage”. During a time where “military rule” is still in effect, the KMT should have accorded absolute authority to the highest military officer in China, thus making him the “military center.” He also examined the political effectiveness of the highest authority, the Central Political Council and the National Government, in the political tutelage period and advocated enhancing it by establishing a “Checkingsystem (駕御核心)”. Chen Li-Fu’s discourse amidst the controversy concerning the political tutelage in the early 1930s was a call to terminate KMT tutelage and to implement a constitutional government. More accurate to say, it was a theoretical attempt to resolve the long-term entanglements between party and military power as well as the struggle for leadership among KMT, both of which had been present since the Northern Expedition. He tried to establish a new model of KMT’s governing authority under KMT tutelage. His main concern was not the legitimacy of the tutelage, but was how to consolidate the governing authority of KMT, and to further unite KMT members under the leadership of Chiang Kaishek. His emphasis on strengthening authority clearly runs counter to the democratic goals implicit in the tutelage. All of above were the results of the deliberate pursuit of the Chen Li-fu and Chiang Kai-shek faction, the demonstration of Sun Yat-Sen’s teachings and authority, and the international trend of dictatorship during the 1930s’.
|Appears in Collections:||教師著作|
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