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Title: 乾隆皇帝與滿洲傳統的重建──以家庭薩滿祭祀儀式為例
Emperor Ch'ien-Lung and the Reconstruction of Manchu Tradition: A Case Study of Family Shaman Rituals
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學歷史學系
Issue Date: 2014
Abstract: 本計畫以滿洲家庭薩滿祭祀儀式為例,探討乾隆皇帝藉由規範的建立,以解決滿洲人等背離傳統所產生的問題,以及新規範的文化意義和對滿洲社會的影響。乾隆十二年(1747),乾隆皇帝下令以滿文編纂《欽定滿洲祭神祭天典禮》,將宮廷、貴族以及一般滿洲家庭薩滿祭祀儀式標準化,以重建滿洲傳統。影響所及,滿洲各姓氏也陸續出現屬於自己家庭的「神本」。迨乾隆四十二年(1777),乾隆皇帝又將該書譯成漢文,包括原本應以滿文誦念的祝辭,也用漢文音譯或意譯的方式呈現,此一做法殊堪玩味。值得注意的,是乾隆皇在帝闡述滿洲「傳統」的場合中,常引用漢文典籍作為理論基礎,甚至直接比附中國古代典制,而這種模式也見於臣工的議論。其中透露出的訊息,是滿洲「漢化」日深,君臣動輒以漢文化為典範,抑或是乾隆皇帝提出滿、漢文化「一體」或「同源」的理論,為臣下所效尤,實有待進一步釐清與論證的必要。 計畫預計分兩年執行:第一年,進行滿文本《欽定滿洲祭神祭天典禮》的譯註,以及滿、漢文本的比較,進而與現存西林覺羅氏、舒舒覺羅氏、鈕祜祿氏、覺羅氏、瓜爾佳氏等家族的滿、漢文「神本」做比對,以了解官定儀式對滿洲家庭祭祀儀式的影響程度,並作為後續研究工作的基礎。第二年,則以計畫為題撰寫論文一篇,並將討論的重點置於:一、乾隆皇帝對滿洲傳統的論述;二、滿洲家庭祭祀儀式的標準化;三、官定儀式對家庭祭祀的影響,進行比較、分析的研究。
Based on the study of Shaman rituals in Manchu families, this project aims to investigate the way Emperor Ch’ien-lung tried to solve the problem of deviation from tradition among the Manchu people through the establishment of norms, explore the cultural significance of the new norms as well as discuss their influences on Manchu society. In 1747, Emperor Ch’ien-lung ordered the officials to compile Rituals of the Manchu Sacrifices to Ancestral Spirits and to Heaven, Imperially Ordained (《欽定滿洲祭神祭天典禮》) in Manchu language to standardize the rituals among the court, the nobility and the common Manchu families for the purpose to reconstruct a Manchu tradition. This influence was so prevalent that almost every clan had its own “ritual book.” Till 1777, Emperor Ch’ien-lung issued the command to translate the book into Han language, including the eulogy, which was supposed to be chanted in Manchu language, either through phonetic or literal translation. Such an act deserves more discussion. It is noteworthy that in circumstances when Emperor Ch’ien-lung had the chances to interpret the concept of “tradition,” he more than once cited Han ancient classics as his theoretical foundations. Furthermore, he would like to make analogies between the Chinese ancient codes and the Manchu ones, which could also be observed in the officials’ discussion. Whether it is an implication of the Manchu’s sinicization that prompts the emperor and the officials to regard the Han culture as their model, or a principle proposed by Emperor Ch’ien-lung to deem that the Manchu and Han cultures are in effect homologous and then followed by the officials, needs to be further clarified. This is a two-year project. In the first year, I’d like to annotate the Manchu version of Rituals of the Manchu Sacrifices to Ancestral Spirits and to Heaven, Imperially Ordained as well as to compare the very text in Manchu and Han versions. Based on this, I will make further comparisons of the Manchu and Han versions of the “ritual books” among the clans of Silin Gioro, ŠuŠu Gioro, Niohuru, Gioro, and Gūwalgiya, for the purpose to better understand the degree of influence of official ceremony on Manchu family rituals. In the second year, I will write a paper on this topic, focusing on the comparisons and analyses of 1. Emperor Ch’ien-lung’s remarks on Manchu tradition, 2. the standarizationof Manchu family rituals, and 3. the influence of official ceremony on family rituals.
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0308_04_006
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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