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Title: 深維根本之重:雍正皇帝整飭旗務初探
The Importance of the Maintenance of the Eight Banner System: A General Discussion of the Way Yung-cheng Emperor Rectifies the Banner Affairs
Authors: 國立臺灣師範大學歷史學系
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2004
Publisher: 國立臺灣師範大學歷史學系
Abstract: 清朝統治者視「八旗為國家根本」,自入關以來,卻因旗、漢接觸頻繁,誘使旗人逐漸拋棄「清語騎射」的傳統,日益背離儉約純樸的習性,加以康熙時代寬仁的政風,使已經發生質變的八旗成員更趨沉淪。雍正皇帝在位期間,對旗務問題多所留意,尤其是針對八旗人等廢弛本習、生計困難、沾染陋習等病象,提出若干改進、解決的方案,其能維護此一「根本」不致動搖。就整飭的立意來看,加強「清語騎射」的教育訓練,是何持民族傳統與民族長技的必要手術,也是區別旗、漢顯標誌;改善八旗人等的生計困難,即便無力保為其經濟上的優勢地位,至少設法維持旗人生活的基本尊嚴;革除奢靡放縱的不良習性,則為扭轉隳壞的人心與澆漓的風俗的要務,亦為督促八旗成員各習其業、恪守本分的良方。就整飭的方法而言,或採取建立制度的方式,使之可長可久,或尋求訂立規範的途徑,使之知所遵循,並佐加以加強勸導與嚴行查處,使之知所警惕。就整飭的成效而論,官員常不能認落實政策,使得旗人無法普遍受惠,而旗人常不能確實守法自律,也造成查緝的職員疲於奔命,甚至有勞雍正皇帝一一指示,或淪為臨時性的救濟措施等等,多少反映出整飭工作的被動、消極的一面。
The rulers of the Ch’ing Dynasty regard “Eight Banner System as the foundation of the country.” Since they built the regime in China, the bannermen have gradually abandoned their traditions of the Manchu language and the skills of equitation and archery, and deviated form their thrifty and furgal behavior, due to the frequent contact with the Han people. In addition, the benevolent governance during the K’ang-his period has made the degraded bannermen even worse. In the reign of Yung-cheng, the Emperor pays much attention to the banner affairs, especially the proposals of the improvement of the predicaments and degrading phenomena of the bannermen, for the purpose to maintain their “foundation.” From the aspect of rectification, to enhance the training of Manchu language and the skills of equitation and archery is the necessary means to keep their traditions and skills, and also, a crucial point to identify the bannermen from the Han people. The improvement of the poor life of the bannermen is at least a way to maintain their dignity, through it may not guarantee a better economic life. Furthermore, to put an end of their extravagant conduct is important to reverse the corruption of the society as well as to urge the bannermen to behave themselves. As for the methods of rectification, the officials can choose to establish systems to make them long-lasting or try to set up norms to make the bannermen know how to follow the rules, and further exhortations and investigations to make the bannermen vigilant. As for the effect, however, the officials seldom seriously implement the policies while the bannermen do not actually follow the rules. Thus, the bannermen cannot benefit from the policies while the officials are weighed down with work. Sometimes, Yung-chen Emperor himself even have to instruct the officials, and sometimes the policies simply become temporary measures. These conditions more or less reflect the passive and negative side of the rectification.
ISSN: 0301-9667
Other Identifiers: ntnulib_tp_B0308_01_018
Appears in Collections:教師著作

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