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Title: 神創規律與物種不變:伏爾泰的自然觀與阿爾比諾族
Other Titles: Divine Order and Fixed Species: Voltaire’s Ideas on the Nature and the Albino
Authors: 楊彥彬
Yang, Yan-bin
Issue Date: Jun-2013
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 伏爾泰旅居英倫期間,接觸牛頓物理學,而神創的和諧宇宙遂成為他的自然觀與宗教觀的核心概念:造物上帝創造規律的物理世界,同時也造出包括人類在內的各種生物體的「種子」,而不同「種子」遂衍生出日後不同人種。關於人類起源的議題,十八世紀法國學界的主張可以分為單一起源論與多元起源論,伏爾泰支持後者,並以自然神論的立場,抨擊貶低神聖秩序的氣候環境論,以及帶有無神論嫌疑的「自發生成」生命起源觀。在伏爾泰說明人類多元起源的論證過程中,「阿爾比諾族」(the Albino)佔有非常重要的地位。本論文將深入探討這位法國作家在其雜文與論戰小冊之中,宣揚與批評的人類起源觀點,並試圖透過當時社會中多元複雜的論辯氛圍,以勾勒出伏爾泰與當時學界人士的各種看法。
The idea of a harmoniously created universe came to be the central theme in Voltaire’s deism after his visit to England, where he learned Newtonianphysics. Based on this idea, Voltaire ruminated on the question of human origin and advocated his theory of polygenism, while some of other French savants held up the idea of monogenism. His deism also moved him to be in opposition to the theory of climate determinism, which underestimated the God’s providence; and to that of spontaneous creation, which he perceived a taint of atheism. This article thus attempts to discuss the intellectual context of this debate, and Voltaire’s arguments around the question of human origin through his various literary writings. It will also compare his ideas with those of his contemporarysavants.
Other Identifiers: B748B063-F0CC-9FB7-3FBE-D85A734F7C7C
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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