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Title: 清末旗人的齊民化
Other Titles: Normalization of Bannermen in the Late Qing Period
Authors: 劉世珣
Liu, Shih-hsun
Issue Date: Jun-2013
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 清朝統治者視八旗為「國家根本」,自入關以來便給其種種優厚待遇,強調旗人的特殊性與優越性。然而,這種情形在清末出現重大變化。受到政局不穩、財政困窘、八旗人口繁衍過於快速等因素的影響,清末清廷被迫取消一般旗人的既得利益,卸除其諸多特權,降低八旗的特殊性,導致旗人在政治、經濟、法律身分、教育等方面逐漸與民人一體,形成一種旗人「齊民化」的現象。進一步探究影響旗人齊民化發展的變項,實與滿洲統治者的意志、清政府的能力以及在地化等關係密切。就統治者的意志而論,僅管清帝身為滿洲人,但同時亦為全中國的皇帝。因此,即便滿洲皇帝欲照顧旗人,然仍須顧及滿洲政權在中國統治的穩定,不得不隨時局而有所調整。就政府能力來說,雖然統治者相當強調並致力於維持旗人的特殊性,但當客觀條件不允許清廷這麼做,或政府力有未逮時,亦只好減少對旗人的照顧,甚至主動取消八旗的部分特權,使旗人漸次與民人齊一。就在地化的影響而言,居於漢地,旗人必須遷就所在環境而有所調整,其言行、生活方式、文化傳統與風俗習慣必然會有所轉變,不再獨立於所處環境之外,從而逐漸適應漢人社會,甚至放棄部分的滿洲民族傳統,漸次與民人相同。儘管從清末的各種改革來看,統治者對旗人的種種照顧仍然優於漢人,且依然不肯放棄自身與近支宗室的特殊權利。然應該說,假以時日,八旗或能達到全面徹底的齊民化,惟尚未達成,清廷旋即因統治核心更加特殊化而同時引起滿人與漢人的反感。一直要等到清朝政權瓦解,旗人已不再是統治階層,喪失了以往的特權、身分與地位,才有可能真正與一般民人齊一。
Rulers of the Qing dynasty regarded the “Eight Banners system as the foundation of the country” and have therefore rewarded the bannermen with a variety of privileges to emphasize their specialty and superiority. However, due to political unstable, finance difficulty and over populated bannermen forced government to renounce multiple privilege of bannermen in the Late Qing Period. Such policy change reduce specialty of bannermen and make them closer to common people that is a process which can be called the Normalization of Bannermen. We can noticed that the Development of the Normalization of Bannermen is heavily influenced by the Will of Manchu Ruler, the Capability of Qing Government and the Indigenization of Manchus. For the Will of Manchu Ruler, He is not only the Manchu but also the Ruler of All China. Therefore he must stabilize his rule in all china that might cost some right of Bannermen. For the Capability of Qing Government, though the ruler wish to grant privileges to bannermen but if there are difficulties the Government will reduce, even cancel, privileges toward Bannermen that makes them more closer to common people. As for the Indigenization of Manchus, Manchus people lived deep inside China, they are deeply influence by the environment around them. Such influence are shown in their way of life and culture traditional getting closer to Han Chinese. Although the Qing Government still take care of Manchus in the Late Qing period, but such care are fading away until the Fall of Qing Dynasty, which was partly caused by the disappointment of people by more specialize of the ruling class, before it can be complete the Combination of bannermen and civilian. It is until the end of Qing Dynasty, the combination come into reality.
Other Identifiers: 81B981FA-2F21-563A-8DBC-DF06F0FCBC1A
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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