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Title: 劉師培人性論之淵源及其現代轉型
Other Titles: Intellectual Foundation and Modern Transformation of Liu Shipei’s Discourse on Human Nature
Authors: 許 滸
Hsu, Hu
Issue Date: Jun-2014
Publisher: 國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract: 劉師培(1884-1919)所處的時代正值中國思想從傳統邁向現代的轉型時期,其人性論雖深受傳統思想的影響,卻又極具現代意義。人性論不僅是中國傳統思想脈絡中的核心課題,亦關乎無政府主義的根本基礎,兼涉傳統與現代。本文即試圖分析劉師培人性論的傳統淵源及其現代轉型,從而蠡測傳統思想論題在轉型時期的變遷軌跡。根據筆者的研究,劉師培首先接受了戴東原(1724-1777)的思想,致疑於宋明儒者的理學式世界觀,繼而通過戴東原所謂的「血氣心知之性」理解王陽明(1472-1529)的「無善無惡之性」,使之對於人性的理解不盡同於陽明,轉近於一種自然人性論式的無善無惡之性。基於此種看法,劉師培認為人性之善惡取決於外在環境,進而期望藉由改善外在環境達致「完全之社會」。此種帶有環境決定論色彩的思維模式不再以修身為第一義, 根本地逾越了傳統的《大學》模式。劉師培轉向無政府主義之後,不再宣稱人性是無善無惡的,而以嫉忌心、自利心與良善心等帶有現代意義的辭彙論述人性的本質,並繼續強調外在環境對於人性的影響,筆者稱之為一種兼有善惡的自然人性論。一般而言,無政府主義者多傾向於主張人性本善。儘管劉師培不盡然同意這種看法,仍基於傳統思想中對於仁的念信,以及風行於當時的進化思潮,將相互扶助的至善之性視為未來的終極願景,終而接納了克魯泡特金的互助論與無政府主義。劉師培人性論之現代轉型乃於焉完成,其歷程卻與傳統思想密不可分。
Liu Shipei’s discourse on human nature not only inherits traditional sources but also absorbs modern ideas, such as “mutual aid”, revealing the complexity of Chinese thoughts in time of transformation. This article argues that Liu understood Wang Yangming’s discourse of human nature through the thoughts of Dai Dongyuan, resulting in his misunderstanding of Yangming’s idea that human nature is purely good, and ultimately sublimed into conscience with neither good nor evil. In contrast to this, Liu considered human nature to be something physical and corporeal. Furthermore, Liu took environment, external condition, as the decisive factor that determined the performance of human nature. Inclined to environmental-determinism, this mode of thinking is paradoxical to the mode of thinking of The Great Learning in which selfcultivation maintained the first priority. For Liu, improving social circumstances is the most momentous way to reach the “complete society” where everything goes in order. After embracing the anarchism, Liu never claimed human nature to be neither good nor evil, but to consist of jealousy, egoism, and virtue. Different from traditional language, these words referring to human nature embody the modernity of Liu’s thoughts. In addition, Liu’s adoption of environmental-determinism might be contributed to his turning for anarchism later. Generally speaking, anarchists support the optimistic discourse on human nature rather than the pessimistic one; however, Liu’s attitude toward human nature was much more complicated. In Liu’s point of view, human nature is now filled with good and evil, but will be ultimately purely good through evolution. This opinion, inspired by the intellectual current of evolution, and the Confucian preference for Benevolence (Jen) both provided stimulus for Liu’s acceptance of “mutual aid,” the critical premise of anarchism. In other words, not only traditional but contemporary intellectual sources participated in the modern transfor
Other Identifiers: 2AF7B101-1AEE-E5D2-411B-15EF33D1DFEC
Appears in Collections:臺灣師大歷史學報

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