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Teachers' thoughts and decisions in environmental teaching of pre-service teachers
|Abstract:||環境教育在國內正規教育中，藉由議題教育融入課程之中。以議題為導向的教育有別於現行學科教育，重在議題的面對與處理，以問題解決的能力培養為主輔以系統知識的學習（張子超，2017）。但對於在職教師而言是一項嘗試也是挑戰。因此，自103學年度起師資培育生的教育專業課程新增教育議題專題為必修，環境教育議題也成為修課的選擇。再者，教育實習課程是學生角色轉變為教師角色重要因素之一（Hounshell& Griffin, 1989）。因此為了環境教育能在正規教育中實踐，關切師培生如何建構環境教學以及如何藉由實習課程進行教學是重要且有意義的。
Environmental education is an incorporation teaching method in domestic formal education. The issue-oriented education is different from the subject education. It focuses on confronting and dealing with issues. It focuses on problem-solving and supplemented by systematic knowledge. But it is an attempt and a challenge for teachers. Therefore, since 2014, issue-oriented education has been added as compulsory courses in teacher training courses, and environmental education issue has also become the choice of courses. Furthermore, be a practice teacher is one of the important factors in transforming student roles into teacher roles (Hounshell& Griffin, 1989). Therefore, in order that environmental education can be practiced in formal education, it is important and meaningful to pay attention to how pre-service teachers construct the environmental teaching and how to teach through practice courses. The purpose of this research is through the " Theory of Teachers’ Thought Processes " to (1) describe the teaching plan decision, teaching interaction decision, and teaching reflection decision of pre-service teachers during the environmental teaching, and (2) explain the reasons and perspectives behind it. The study is a case study, using interviews, observations, stimulus recall methods and non-interfering measurements to collect research data. The study participants were six pre-service teachers enrolled in "Environmental Education and Sustainable Behavior Building" course at National Taiwan Normal University in 2018. After training the pre-service teachers through the courses established by basic knowledge and environmental literacy of environmental education, they began to plan and implement environmental teaching programs. The pre-service teachers were divided into six groups. Each group selected one of concepts which was developed by Sauve (1996) as well as designed and implemented a thirty-minute activity for junior high students. The research finds that: (1) the pre-service teachers could use the course as a scaffold and combine their own professional training, teaching experience and club experience to develop their activity; (2) Thinking characteristics of teaching plans: Teachers produced teaching purposes at first. The teaching purpose led other categories of thinking and decision-making. Teachers used the "outdoor environment" as "classrooms" and "textbooks" in the environmental teaching, and interdisciplinary teachers worked to incorporate disciplines into teaching; (3) The process of teaching interactive thinking was from teaching progress, the emergence of thinking clues, thinking about all aspects of teaching to making interactive decisions. After thinking, 58% of the teachers made interactive decisions, and 42% maintained the original teaching plan or continue the course; (4) Thinking characteristics of teaching interaction: 43% of thinking clues related to learners in thinking clues were the largest category, followed by teaching resources with 16%, and teaching environment with 13% each. In this teaching, the influence of "teaching resources" and "teaching environment" were particularly prominent; (5) Teaching reflection helped teachers improve their teaching. During the teaching reflection stage, 65% of teaching events were reflected; (6) The characteristics of teaching reflection: learners, teaching goals, teaching content and teaching environment ranked the top three in the proportion of teaching reflection categories. In addition, teaching goals played an important role at this stage as the basis for teaching evaluation; (7) The teaching knowledge of the environmental teaching needed to be continuously accumulated and constructed.
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