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Title: 現行高中化學實驗之減量研究
A study of the current high school chemistry experiments concern with quantities reduction
Authors: 洪志明
Horng Jhy Ming
Chen Yu Fen
Keywords: 實驗教學
experimental teaching
green chemistry
microscale laboratory
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 實驗教學是科學教育的特色,也是科學教學的核心部份。化學是一門實驗科學,藉由實驗活動可以讓學生更了解化學原理,培養科學實驗技能及對科學的興趣與態度,加深學生的學習印象。化學實驗備受爭議的一點是對環境的汙染問題,近年來永續化學興起,對於課程實驗的設計更應該朝向低污染、廢棄物減量來著手。 本研究蒐集市面上常見的五種高中化學實驗活動手冊,分析其實驗設計內容,找出需要修正與改進的地方。並將規定的必作實驗實地操作過數次,把實驗過程中遭遇的問題與現象,提出來討論與設法解決,再針對理論上可藥品減量的部分,進行減量減廢設計,直到實驗結果可符合原來實驗目的。 本研究總共進行了21個高中化學實驗,其中藥品用量可以減量操作的實驗,一共十二個實驗,約佔了五成。可以減量操作的實驗有「氮的製備與性質」、「電解碘化鉀水溶液」、「化學電池」、「耐綸的合成」、「烴的製備與性質」、「反應速率的探討-秒錶反應」、「酸鹼滴定」、「氧化還原滴定」、「碘的製備與性質以及鹵素離子的檢驗」、「溶液凝固點下降的測定」、「阿司匹靈的製備」與「氧的製備」,表示實驗課程的設計還有改善的空間。研究結果與建議如下: 一、 將永續化學融入化學教材中 二、 加強學生對實驗廢棄物的處理與分類 三、 設置實驗室專門管理員與加強老師的實驗管理知識 四、 鼓勵研究單位與教師從事減量實驗的設計 五、 落實實驗教學 六、 建議課本某些實驗的步驟再精簡化 七、 可將微型實驗列為教學『示範實驗』 八、 加強處理廢棄物並作好回收工作
Experimental teaching is the characteristics of science education and the core of science teaching. Chemistry is an experimental science, with experiments can allow students to understand the chemistry better, which can not only foster a scientific experimental skills, interest, and attitudes toward science ,but also to enhance students’ impression of learning. The most controversial point about Chemistry Experiment is the problem of pollution on the environment. In recent years, due to the emergence of sustainable chemistry, experimental course design should turn towards to low-pollution and waste reduction. In this study, five common activity manuals of high school chemistry experiments are collected, and then the content of their experimental design are analyzed in order to identify the need to amend and improve. Experiments will be operated for several times. During the experiment, any phenomena or problems encountered will propose to discussion and try to solve the problem. For those can be further reduction of some drugs by theory, there will be designed to reduce waste reduction until the experimental result can be consistent with the purpose of the original experiment. In this study, a total of 22 high school chemistry experiments were operated, in which drugs can be reduced in the amount of the experimental operation accounting for about a half. Experimental operations can be reduced include the "preparation and properties of nitrogen", "electrolysis of potassium iodide in aqueous solution", "chemical battery," "synthesis of nylon", "preparation and properties of hydrocarbons," "reaction rate - stopwatch reaction "," acid-base titration "," redox titration "," preparation and properties of iodine as well as halogen ion test, "" point decreasing of solution freezing point "," preparation of aspirin "and" the make and preparation of oxygen " .A total of 12 experiments on behalf of the design of experiments course still have a space for improvement. Findings and recommendations are as follows: First, sustainable chemistry will be integrated into the chemical material Second, to strengthen students’ ways toward the classification of experiment waste disposal Third, set up a special administrator of laboratory and enhance the knowledge of experimental management of teachers Fourth, to encourage research organizations and teachers to engage in the design of experimental reduction Fifth, the implementation of experimental teaching Sixth, recommend textbooks to simplify steps of some experiments Seventh, include micro-experiment teaching as a teaching demonstration Eighth, to strengthen the work of waste disposal and recycling
Other Identifiers: GN0694420137
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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