Cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global tourism markets; and marketing plays an important role in promoting cultural tourism destinations and increasing their competitiveness and attractiveness. Based on the 'value-based marketing' concept of Kotler and Keller (2008); this study takes a comprehensive overview of previous literature and identifies three dimensions which embrace a series of factors related to the marketing of urban cultural tourism. First; 'value exploration' consists of segmentation; targeting and positioning - the essence of strategic marketing. This study demonstrates that cultural tourism market can be segmented by six factors. Some elements are also proposed to craft a city's positioning. The second dimension is 'value creation'; and authenticity; inclusiveness and creativity are the three critical factors for developing cultural tourism products. Third; 'value delivery' is concerned with how a city can deliver the new value offerings more efficiently. The establishment of partnerships and the deployment of supporting resources are deemed as crucial. Finally; the conceptual model of this study could be presented as a base line for further primary research.
One of the major forms of cultural tourism development undertaken throughout Europe has been the staging of a growing number of cultural events. The event of European Capitals of Culture (ECOC) is probably the best example of the new trends of cultural tourism in Europe; which is therefore used in this article to demonstrate some of the key issues surrounding the event-led strategy for cultural tourism development. Based on case study; historical approach and document analysis; this study reviewed systematically the cases; documents and literatures of ECOC over a 20-year period. The research findings point to a number of ways in which the ECOC constitutes a boost for the development of cultural tourism in terms of realizing experience economy; enhancing city image; facilitating urban regeneration; promoting cultural production and consumption; as well as establishing partnerships.
Current studies on art and museums, paying little attention on the long lasting but recently transformed practices of multiple museum guide services' from panel introductions, guidebooks, personal guides to the audio-visual guides, fail to explore how the significant intermediate dimensions intervene not only the museum installation but also its consumption and reception. This research analyses the historical development of guidebooks to its current technological form performed by audio guides, due to the social trends embodied in multiplication of senses, human and non-human hybridisation, time-space flexibility and cultural industrialisation; and also its multiple uses by different visitors, considering the speed of the visit, human and non-human relationship as well as visitor's capital accessible to the exhibition based on one current case study.
Drawing upon Actor-Network Theory, Bourdieu's theory of practice and Urry's theory of multiple mobilities, this study concerns how guide services perform as the tool of regulation when providing freedom and individualised mobile options. Based on "Splendor of the Baroque and Beyond: Great Habsburg Collectors- Masterpieces from the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna" exhibition held in the National Palace Museum in Taipei in 2007-8, this research not only explores the production of museum's multiple guide services by interviews and discourse analyses of guides concerning the tempo, sound and the control of references, but also how different visitors appropriate various guide services based on in-depth interviews and fieldwork in the museum.