全形復性——道教度亡科儀的生命關懷與醫治觀

No Thumbnail Available

Date

2021-12-??

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

國立台灣師範大學國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU

Abstract

道教對於人體的關懷,貴生、重生並希冀延生,可以說是立教核心,在追求長生不死的理論體系中,處處可見圍繞著身體所衍生出來的各種關乎保養、治療與醫藥的元素。與中國古代關於全身而歸的信仰殊異,以登真成仙為終極目標的道教,關注的不僅止於死時身軀的完整與屍體的保存方式,而是將形體整全—— 即「全形」的概念—— 作為生身成仙與死後得度的先決條件,重新詮釋了形體與魂魄之間的關係,賦予全身而歸新的意義與可能性。基於「全形」思維,道教特別關懷亡魂形體「不全」的苦狀,並認為人在生之時為疾病所苦,死後亦「身膺病苦」、「隨魂受疾」,換句話說,形軀的完整與否影響了死後亡魂身形與處境,甚至也左右得到救贖的可能。因此,道教度亡的首要工作,便是以炁醫治、拯療、聚合缺損且零散的魂形,使之全形復性,而後亡者才能得到臨壇聽法並進一步受度生仙的機會。本文以道藏中的度亡科儀文獻為主要資料,分為三個部分討論。首先闡述道教全形觀念的發展與內涵,其次探討亡魂形相不全的原因,最後說明炁在度亡科儀治療亡魂儀節中的意義與作用。
The Daoism treasures the conceptions of livelihood, health and longevity, stressing more on body. The doctrines of pursue for longevity develop a wide variety of elements about maintenance, healing and medicine. Different from the belief of whole corpse in the ancient China, the Taoism cares about not only the body state when died and the preservation of corpse, but values the "whole-shape" as the prerequisites of being immortal and salvation. Base on the conception of whole-shape, the Taoism especially concerns about the break state of the dead's body, and considers that sickness in existence would influence the situation and salvation afterlife. On this ground, the first thing to save the dead is healing, recovering and completing the break soul by Ch'i, to makes the shape in whole. The main sources of this article is that text about salvation for the dead from Tao Tsang. This paper will deal with the conception of whole-shape, and divide into three parts. Firstly, analyze the definition and the original of "Cherishing Lives." Then discuss the reason why the dead out of shape. Finally, explain the meaning and function of Ch’i in the immortal healer salvation rite.

Description

Keywords

Citation

Collections