影響印尼霾害管理政策之因素分析

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2022

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近年來環境議題受到全世界的重視,而霧霾問題也在其中。自從1997年大規模霾害以來,印尼霾害議題開始長期受到社會關注,尤其東南亞鄰國更是身受其害。雖然國際間呼籲印尼改善問題的聲浪不斷,但印尼直到近十年間之間才開始透過國內政策的改善與作為,較為積極地回應國際對其霾害問題的政策作為,這其中的變化與因素,相當值得探討。印尼霾害的主要發生原因為聖嬰現象(El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO)的盛行,但隨著蘇門答臘島上泥炭地區人口的增加以及聖嬰現象的發生率增加,在1990年代之後,印尼霾害的發生更加頻繁和嚴重。由於當地人民為了生活不論是需要農耕用地或是開發新的居住用土地,而在原始森林大量砍伐,甚至將泥炭地改作為其他土地用途,其中又以棕櫚樹和紙漿樹木的種植園尤為普遍。 近年來,在聯合國與東南亞國家協會的機制下,透過國家行為者之間的合作。聯合國的REDD+計畫、挪威印尼雙邊的環境合作、東協簽屬的霾害防治條約以及歐盟與東協之間的合作之下,企圖對於印尼霾害問題有所改善。本文的目的即在分析上述合作的因素是否達到促進印尼國內政策轉變的效果。此外本人亦探討國際非政府組織、跨國企業以及草根非政府組織等非國家行為者的影響。最後,提出綜論分析不同層次的組織所提供合作誘因,如何促使印尼政府在面對霾害問題時的政策做出改變。
In recent years, environmental issues, including haze, have received great attention from all over the world. Indonesia’s haze issue has been a big problem for a long time. Because its Southeast Asian neighbors have suffered serious haze pollution, international call for Indonesia to address the problem has emerged since 1997. However, it was not until in the recent decade that the Indonesian government began to change its domestic policy, and respond to the international criticism. Such change is worth discussing.The main cause of haze in Indonesia is the prevalence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). After the 1990s, as the increased population in the peatlands on Sumatra and the recurring ENSO, Indonesian haze became more frequent and serious. Because of the need of agricultural land and new residential areas, deforestation in primary forests and conversion of peatlands to palm and pulp tree plantations were common in Indonesia. Based on the description above, under the efforts of the United Nations and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Indonesia's haze management policy gradually change. With the support of the UNREDD+ program, the environmental cooperation between Norway and Indonesia, the haze agreements signed by ASEAN, and the cooperation between the EU and ASEAN, the Indonesian government attempted to improve Indonesian haze problem. This article showed the analyzing result of the relationship between the changes of Indonesia's domestic policy and the factors leading to cooperation. In addition, this article also discussed the influence of non-state actors, international NGOs, multinational enterprises, and grassroots NGOs. Lastly, this article examined the incentives at different cooperation levels, and explained how the Indonesian government made the changes in the policy of haze problem.

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印尼霾害, 全球環境治理, 政策分析, Indonesian haze, Global environmental governance, Policy analysis

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