以Bernstein的教育認同理論探析馬來西亞華文獨立中學華教認同的演變 The Identity Struggles of Malaysian Chinese Independent Schools: A Perspective of Bernstein's Pedagogic Identities Theory

Date
2021
Authors
林田俊
Lim, Tien Jun
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Abstract
馬來西亞的華文獨立中學誕生於1950年代至1960年代之間,各地方的華文中學爲了維護獨立前既已存在之華校體制而抗拒國家在獨立後提出的改制政策,從而「獨立」於國家體制之外。這些「地方的」華文中學於1973年獨中復興運動後成為有組織的共同體,提出獨中建議書,獨中工委會亦組織起來,在獨中場域內形成統一的對外論述。1990年代起,獨中場域內出現了一系列持續至今的教育改革論述。本研究以Bernstein教育認同理論為分析框架,採文件分析法,使用董教總及各地方華文獨中的公開文獻爲主要的資料分析對象,分析「華文學校改制與獨中誕生(1950s-1960s)」、「獨中系統建制(1970s-1980s)」、「獨中教育改革(1990s至今)」三個獨中教育發展時期的獨中教育認同變化。研究發現,獨中的教育認同分成兩個主要階段,在獨中教育改革以前,獨中教育是以中央化的「展望性認同」為優勢論述,強調「中華文化為馬來亞文化的一部分」,在這一框架下,當獨中在1990年代開始進入教育改革以後,納入了更多與「市場競爭力」及「學生主體的全面發展」有關的「去中央化論述」,使得獨中的教育認同在整體上呈現出「拼貼」的樣貌。此外,獨中教育在地方上存在多種不同的實踐,一些學校融入了「獨中路線」之外的其他課程系統,顯現「展望性認同」的分裂立場。
Malaysian Chinese Independent Schools was born between 1950s and 1960s, the local Chinese secondary school refused to integrate into the national-school system in order to maintain the Chinese school system which was established before the independence of Malaysia. These local Chinese secondary schools became an organized group after the 1973 National Movement for the Development of Independent Chinese Secondary Schools. The Malaysian Independent Chinese Secondary School Proposal (MICSS Proposal) was accepted, and the Dong Jiao Zong Malaysian Independent Chinese Secondary School Development Working Committee was established, henceforth formed the unified external discourse in the field of Chinese Independent Schools. From 1990s, a series of discourses of educational reform was founded in the field of Chinese Independent Schools. The Bernstein’s Pedagogic Identities Theory is the conceptual framework of this study. The research method is documentary research, which analysis the opened documents available from Dong Jiao Zong and local Chinese Independent Schools to discover the educational identities and the struggling during the three periods of the educational development of Chinese Independent Schools: the conversion of Chinese Schools and the born of Chinese Independent Schools(1950s-1960s), the system establishment of Chinese Independent School(1970s-1980s), the educational reform of Chinese Independent School (1990s until now). This study reveals that, there are two stages in the pedagogic identities of the Chinese Independent Schools. Before the educational reform, the Prospective Identity which emphasis that the “Chinese culture is a part of Malayan culture” is the dominant discourse of Chinese Independent Schools. Under this framework, when the Chinese Independent Schools started the educational reform from 1990s, more of the “competitive in the market” and “the full development of student” discourses were included, which was the de-centred discourses, constructed the “mosaic” feature of the Pedagogic Identities of Chinese Independent Schools. However, the different educational practices in each of the local Chinese Independent School, which may include the curriculum systems other than “the way of Chinese Independent Schools”, represented the schismatic tendency of Prospective Identity.
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馬來西亞華文獨立中學, 華文教育, 教育認同理論, 伯恩斯坦, 文件分析法, Malaysian Chinese Independent Schools, Chinese education, Pedagogic Identities, Basil Bernstein, documentary research
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