糾繆與示範:論清高宗《御選唐宋文醇》對儲欣《唐宋十大家全集錄》之取捨與古文重構

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2021-06-??

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國立台灣師範大學國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU

Abstract

唐宋八大家是古文之典範,隨茅坤《唐宋八大家文鈔》及其賡續選本產生流弊,其價值定位也受挑戰。康熙朝儲欣《唐宋十大家全集錄》首度以十家文為選本發難,翻駁茅本,見重士林,代表清初質疑聲音。清廷如何介入與回應,關乎政策與文學走向,乃重要議題。對此,乾隆帝《御選唐宋文醇》為頗佳觀察對象,弘曆透過改良欣本,矯治選本沉痾,今人鮮少關注。本文首先探究《文醇》生成背景與弘曆之古文價值批評,標舉其綰合經義,有補世用之文學觀。其次,探討《文醇》對《全集錄》取捨與重述,彰顯弘曆選文品味,與唐宋古文之新義。此外,弘曆有意以唐宋文為器,透過推求古人心跡,楷模了良吏與忠臣形象,也坦露人主焦慮於綱紀,借此發揮穩固政統之力量。
The Eight Great Prose Masters of the Tang and Song were the models of traditional Chinese literature. However, following the abuses of Collections of Eight Great Prose Masters of the Tang and Song by Maokun as well as its extended collection works, their value and positioning have been challenged. During Kangxi's period, Chuxin's Total Collections of Ten Great Prose Masters of the Tang and Song was adopted as a first collection work to break the framework set by Maokun, in which the scholars were the focus, marking the argument towards it in early Qing Dynasty. How the court intervened and responded was decisive to the later direction of policies and literature, and therefore it was an essential issue. As a result, The Imperial Selection of the Mellow Writings of the Tang and the Song Dynasties by Emperor Qianlong is a quite excellent observation target. Improving Chuxin's collection, Qianlong corrected its long-term abuses, which received rare notice. In this article, the forming background of the Evaluation was discussed, discovering the Emperor's critics to the traditional literature as well as his perspective that fitted scriptural conceptions and universal uses. Secondly, the acceptance/rejection and re-discussion of Evaluation to Total Collections wasexplored, highlighting Qialong's taste of the collection and emphasizing the contemporary values of traditional literature works during Tang and Song Dynasties. In addition, Qialong intended to use the literatures as the tool to have an insight to the forefathers, modeling the images of "virtuous officials" and "loyal servants;" this also expressed the monarch's anxiety towards law and order and his actions of exerting powers of stabilizing his regime.

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