1920年代臺灣與朝鮮文化啟蒙運動及主張之比較分析:以蔡培火與李光洙為例

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2018

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1920年代臺灣與朝鮮在日本殖民統治放寬言論、出版、集會自由的限制下,知識分子熱切地帶起文化啟蒙運動,主張要趕上世界的「改造」風潮,使傳統社會能脫胎換骨,在競爭的文明世界中生存下來。蔡培火與李光洙為此提出主張,他們皆出身貧困,藉由他人的資助前往東京留學,藉由留學經驗接觸並思考西方近代文明,在這期間逐漸形成他們的近代世界觀,由此他們重新評估傳統文化,並為臺灣與朝鮮社會提出改造方針。 蔡培火與李光洙將近代西方文明奉為典範,希望積極學習西方的人文和科學知識,以去除傳統文化中的陋習,改善傳統社會在精神上的閉塞、遲鈍,警告若不思進步便會被弱肉強食的世界淘汰,擺脫不了被強權宰制的命運。蔡培火與李光洙皆相信,唯有積極主動地學習新文明,改革傳統,殖民地人民才能提升自身落後的文化,從而創造新文化,掌握自己的未來。 蔡培火的改造原理是人道主義,他主張此人道主義是超越不同政治立場的,以此來避免以自身利益對抗異己,因而能長久推動文化啟蒙運動,培養臺灣人民具備能適應並經營近代化生活的人格。蔡培火並積極參與臺灣文化協會的活動,也做為臺灣議會請願運動的領袖之一,但他的主張並非臺灣完全自治,而是希望臺灣議會做為日本本地與臺灣之間互相了解的橋樑,以改善總督與在臺日人專政的情況,使臺灣人民可以得到平等待遇;李光洙則為朝鮮的未來提出「民族改造論」,主張成立「改造同盟」,此團體只著重文化修養而不涉政治,致力於學習近代文明知識和精神,有組織地篩選並栽培會員,逐步擴大至一定規模後,便能帶領社會的近代化,完成朝鮮自19世紀以來的「開化」之夢。本文著重在分析並對照此二人如何認識世界─他們的近代觀─以及他們如何認識自己的社會傳統和提出什麼樣的改造方法,藉此了解他們對世界運作規則和自處姿態的思考方式,作為當代社會的思想資源。
Abstract In the first decade of colonialization, Japan had ruled the colonies with repression. After the March First Movement, at the start of 1920s, the first civilian governor general was appointed to Taiwan and a new colonial policy “cultural rule” (bunka seiji) was applied to Korea, which caused a cultural renaissance in 1920s. Westernized intellectual elites like Tasi Pei-huo and Yi Kwangsu, finished their studying in Japan and came back to Taiwan and Korea in 1921. They both admired Western civilization and hoped enthusiastically for the modernization of Taiwan and Korea. This article sets forth and compares Tsai and Yi’s assertions of world view, self-knowledge and the way of “transforming” (kaizo) the societies. In this way, we can understand more about their thinking in 1920s of the relations between the colonizer and the colonized. Tsai and Yi collaborated with the Japanese authorities in modernization but also criticized its assimilation policy. Instead of launching anti-Japanese movements, they preferred focusing on lifting the societies’ cultures into modern level, joining the world trend of “keizo”. Tsai and Yi believed that the way for the colonies to survive in the modern world was to “transform” or modernize its cultures and ways of thinking, once the “transformation” finished, people in Taiwan and Korea could change the subordinated status and contribute to the world peace.

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1920年代, 朝鮮, 文化啟蒙運動, 改造, 近代化, 蔡培火, 李光洙, 1920s, Korea, Cultural Movement, Kaizo, Modernization, Tsai Pei-huo, Yi Kwangsu

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