劉鳳苞注《莊》對莊子思想的詮釋與轉化 Liu Fengbao's Commentary on the Interpretation and Transformation of Zhuangzi's Thought in his work Zhuang

Date
2022
Authors
林瑞龍
LIN, JUI-LONG
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Abstract
劉鳳苞《南華雪心編》為「以文評莊」的集大成之作,故近代學者研究此書,多由「文學角度」詮釋《莊子》。但劉氏於書中自序云:「雪心者,謂《南華》爲一卷冰雪之文,必索解於人世炎熱之外,而心境始為之雪亮也。後之讀是篇者,其亦可渙然冰釋矣。」可知劉鳳苞注解《莊子》,除了文學,其思想必定有值得注意之處,若略而不論,不免有愧於其將書命名為「雪心」之衷。故本論文欲由「本體論」、「宇宙論」、「逍遙論」、「工夫論」、「聖人論」、「政治論」等角度,探討劉鳳苞的注《莊》思想,並藉由與《莊子》思想的對比,以明其對莊子思想的繼承與開展,進一步瞭解其所呈現的時代意義。在本體論中,劉鳳苞注解《莊子》時,以為「道」有四項質性:「超越性」、「根源性」、「遍在性」、「不可言性」,基本上無異於莊子對「道」的設定。但若由「宇宙論」的角度出發,劉鳳苞注文中論及道之生成時,又出現了「元氣」、「一」等元素。此外,又以「氣化」詮釋莊子的宇宙論,「道」為生化本根。使莊子思想的設定產生了變化,改變了「生」的意涵,間接使得「道」轉為「創生的實體」,屬於「實有形態的形而上學」。在注解「逍遙」境界時,劉鳳苞承襲了莊子由「心」上論逍遙,但提出「自適於清虛」的說法,將莊子判斷是否達「逍遙」境界的標準,改為「清虛」。又將孟子的「仁義之性」融入個體的性中,則萬物皆具仁義之性,此或可視為萬物皆具逍遙之質,以化解莊子無待逍遙普遍性的困境。論及莊子的「心齋」、「坐忘」、「攖寧」等工夫時,劉鳳苞秉持著儒、道二家「旨趣固兩相符合」的立場,試著調和儒、道的學說。強調工夫必先由儒家仁義道德之處開始實踐,漸漸內化後,并其仁義之迹與用心一起化掉,因而特別重視「化」與「忘」的工夫。劉鳳苞注解「聖人」境界時,因劉氏的工夫論中本帶有「儒學化」的傾向,故其「聖人論」同樣的帶有儒學化的傾向。如注解「神人」時,將《中庸》:「致中和,天地位焉,萬物育焉。」與《孟子》的「過化存神」融入「無功」。亦如論「真人」時,將孟子「以直養無害」的工夫論融入真人「息以踵」的特徵。因而劉鳳苞詮釋莊子「聖人論」時,為能通於莊子的道境,故特別重視「泯其迹」,且并其「用心」一塊泯除。劉鳳苞在評論儒家的「德治」時,看似承襲了莊子對儒家德治的否定。但又於〈駢拇〉篇首總論中,強調仁義之與道德,雖然稱謂不同,然皆源於性命。故知劉鳳苞所抨擊的「仁義」,乃出以名的「仁義」,若仁義能處於「渾漠相忘」的狀態,「化其仁義之迹」應是可行的。對於劉鳳苞在注解《莊子》時所展現的儒學化傾向,筆者不以為其曲解了莊子的本意,反將它視作劉鳳苞由現實生活中所體悟到的莊子思想,藉以忘懷現實生活中的不如意。
Liu Fengbao's Nanhua Xuexin Bian(南華雪心編) is a masterpiece of "Criticism on Zhuangzi", so modern scholars study this book and interpret "Zhuangzi" from a "literary perspective". But Liu's preface wrote in the book: "Xuexin people say that "Nanhua" is a volume of ice and snow, and it must be solved outside the heat of the world, and the state of mind will start to be clear and bright. It can also be released in a hurry.” It can be seen that Liu Fengbao's commentary on Zhuangzi, in addition to literature, must have something worth noting in his thoughts.Therefore, this dissertation intends to explore Liu Fengbao's thoughts on commenting on Zhuang from the perspectives of "ontology", "cosmology", "Xiaoyao theory", "gongfu theory", "sage theory", "political theory", etc. The comparison of Zhuangzi's thought is to clarify its inheritance and development of Zhuangzi's thought, and to further understand the significance of the times it presents. In ontology, when Liu Fengbao annotated Zhuangzi, he believed that "Dao" has four qualities: "transcendence", "originality", "ubiquity", "ineffable", basically no different from Zhuangzi The setting for"Dao". However, from the perspective of "cosmology", when Liu Fengbao's commentary discusses the formation of Dao, elements such as "primitive energy"(元氣) and "oneness"(一) appear. In addition, Zhuangzi's cosmology is interpreted in terms of "Qi Hua"(氣化), and "Dao" is the root of biochemistry. It changed the setting of Zhuangzi's thought, changed the meaning of "birth", and indirectly transformed "Tao" into "substance created by life", which belongs to "metaphysics with real form". When commenting on the "Xiaoyao"(逍遙) realm, Liu Fengbao inherited Zhuangzi's theory of "Xiaoyao" from the "heart", but put forward the saying that "self-suited to clear emptiness", and changed Zhuangzi's standard for judging whether the "Xiaoyao" state was "clear and empty"(清虛). And if Mencius's "nature of benevolence and righteousness"(仁義之性) is integrated into the nature of individuals, all things have the nature of benevolence and righteousness. This may be regarded as the quality of all things being free and easy, so as to resolve Zhuangzi's predicament of the universality of being unwilling to be free. When discussing Zhuangzi's "xinzhai"(心齋), "sitting and forgetting"(坐忘) and "mindfulness"(攖寧), Liu Fengbao adhered to the standpoint of the two schools of Confucianism and Taoism, which were "consistent in purpose", and tried to reconcile the theories of Confucianism and Taoism. Emphasizes that kung fu must first be practiced from the point of Confucian benevolence, righteousness and morality, and then gradually internalized, and the traces of benevolence and righteousness and intentions will be melted away together.When Liu Fengbao commented on the realm of"sages", because Liu's theory of Gongfu originally had a tendency of "Confucianization", his "sages" also had a tendency of Confucianization.For example, when annotating "God and Man"(神人), the "Zhongyong": "to achieve neutrality, the status of heaven, and the cultivation of all things." And the "excessive transformation and preservation of spirit" in "Mencius" are integrated into "no power"(無功). In the same way, when discussing "the real person", Mencius's theory of "no harm to raise with the straight" is integrated into the characteristics of the real person "to rest on the heels". Therefore, when Liu Fengbao interprets Zhuangzi's "Sage Theory", in order to be able to understand Zhuangzi's Taoist realm, he pays special attention to "eliminating his traces" and eliminating his "intent". When Liu Fengbao commented on Confucianism's "rule of virtue"(德治), he seemed to inherit Zhuangzi's denial of Confucianism's rule of virtue. However, in the general commentary at the beginning of the "Parallel Thumb", it is emphasized that benevolence, righteousness and morality, although the names are different, both originate from life. Therefore, we know that the "benevolence and righteousness" attacked by Liu Fengbao is the "benevolence and righteousness" in name. Regarding the Confucianization tendency displayed by Liu Fengbao in his annotations to Zhuangzi, the author does not think that he misinterprets the original intention of Zhuangzi, but regards it as the thought of Zhuangzi thatLiu Fengbao realized in real life, so as to forget the disappointment in real life.
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劉鳳苞, 元氣, 氣化宇宙論, 清虛的逍遙, 以儒解莊, Liu Fengbao, primitive energy, gasification cosmology, clear and empty, Understanding Zhuang with Confucianism
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