劉鳳苞注《莊》對莊子思想的詮釋與轉化 Liu Fengbao's Commentary on the Interpretation and Transformation of Zhuangzi's Thought in his work Zhuang

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Liu Fengbao's Nanhua Xuexin Bian(南華雪心編) is a masterpiece of "Criticism on Zhuangzi", so modern scholars study this book and interpret "Zhuangzi" from a "literary perspective". But Liu's preface wrote in the book: "Xuexin people say that "Nanhua" is a volume of ice and snow, and it must be solved outside the heat of the world, and the state of mind will start to be clear and bright. It can also be released in a hurry.” It can be seen that Liu Fengbao's commentary on Zhuangzi, in addition to literature, must have something worth noting in his thoughts.Therefore, this dissertation intends to explore Liu Fengbao's thoughts on commenting on Zhuang from the perspectives of "ontology", "cosmology", "Xiaoyao theory", "gongfu theory", "sage theory", "political theory", etc. The comparison of Zhuangzi's thought is to clarify its inheritance and development of Zhuangzi's thought, and to further understand the significance of the times it presents. In ontology, when Liu Fengbao annotated Zhuangzi, he believed that "Dao" has four qualities: "transcendence", "originality", "ubiquity", "ineffable", basically no different from Zhuangzi The setting for"Dao". However, from the perspective of "cosmology", when Liu Fengbao's commentary discusses the formation of Dao, elements such as "primitive energy"(元氣) and "oneness"(一) appear. In addition, Zhuangzi's cosmology is interpreted in terms of "Qi Hua"(氣化), and "Dao" is the root of biochemistry. It changed the setting of Zhuangzi's thought, changed the meaning of "birth", and indirectly transformed "Tao" into "substance created by life", which belongs to "metaphysics with real form". When commenting on the "Xiaoyao"(逍遙) realm, Liu Fengbao inherited Zhuangzi's theory of "Xiaoyao" from the "heart", but put forward the saying that "self-suited to clear emptiness", and changed Zhuangzi's standard for judging whether the "Xiaoyao" state was "clear and empty"(清虛). And if Mencius's "nature of benevolence and righteousness"(仁義之性) is integrated into the nature of individuals, all things have the nature of benevolence and righteousness. This may be regarded as the quality of all things being free and easy, so as to resolve Zhuangzi's predicament of the universality of being unwilling to be free. When discussing Zhuangzi's "xinzhai"(心齋), "sitting and forgetting"(坐忘) and "mindfulness"(攖寧), Liu Fengbao adhered to the standpoint of the two schools of Confucianism and Taoism, which were "consistent in purpose", and tried to reconcile the theories of Confucianism and Taoism. Emphasizes that kung fu must first be practiced from the point of Confucian benevolence, righteousness and morality, and then gradually internalized, and the traces of benevolence and righteousness and intentions will be melted away together.When Liu Fengbao commented on the realm of"sages", because Liu's theory of Gongfu originally had a tendency of "Confucianization", his "sages" also had a tendency of Confucianization.For example, when annotating "God and Man"(神人), the "Zhongyong": "to achieve neutrality, the status of heaven, and the cultivation of all things." And the "excessive transformation and preservation of spirit" in "Mencius" are integrated into "no power"(無功). In the same way, when discussing "the real person", Mencius's theory of "no harm to raise with the straight" is integrated into the characteristics of the real person "to rest on the heels". Therefore, when Liu Fengbao interprets Zhuangzi's "Sage Theory", in order to be able to understand Zhuangzi's Taoist realm, he pays special attention to "eliminating his traces" and eliminating his "intent". When Liu Fengbao commented on Confucianism's "rule of virtue"(德治), he seemed to inherit Zhuangzi's denial of Confucianism's rule of virtue. However, in the general commentary at the beginning of the "Parallel Thumb", it is emphasized that benevolence, righteousness and morality, although the names are different, both originate from life. Therefore, we know that the "benevolence and righteousness" attacked by Liu Fengbao is the "benevolence and righteousness" in name. Regarding the Confucianization tendency displayed by Liu Fengbao in his annotations to Zhuangzi, the author does not think that he misinterprets the original intention of Zhuangzi, but regards it as the thought of Zhuangzi thatLiu Fengbao realized in real life, so as to forget the disappointment in real life.
劉鳳苞, 元氣, 氣化宇宙論, 清虛的逍遙, 以儒解莊, Liu Fengbao, primitive energy, gasification cosmology, clear and empty, Understanding Zhuang with Confucianism