中共推動廣西海峽兩岸產業合作園影響之研究

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2018

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近年來中國大陸經濟結構轉型使得投資環境改變迅速,土地、人力、環境、生產成本上升,致使許多傳統產業和加工代工的台商企業面臨嚴重的轉型升級問題,不是經營困難退出生產,就是向其他地區或國家轉移。十九大後,中國大陸政府更加速供給側的經濟結構改革,產業的升級轉型面臨高度競爭之外,還面臨習近平新時代下對各種環境保護以及社會保障的經營成本大增的挑戰,台商面臨到空前的生存與競爭的壓力。 因此在習近平新時代下投資環境的丕變,中共當局對於台商的政策也有別於以往,相對於80年代(三來一補)的加工傳統產業,90年代電腦代工產業以及2000年以後致力於推動兩岸共構全球生產供應鏈的產業合作型態,習近平主政之下,對於轉型升級發生困難的台商也提供引導與扶持的政策,然而這些新型台商政策有他內外兼顧的政經考量。 對內而言提供政策誘因引導台商到新型態的台商園區,以減緩升級壓力也促進新型園區的地方繁榮,因此新型園區都選擇在邊境地區或內陸。對外而言,有積極協助促成習近平所構建「一帶一路」的對外經濟戰略,也有在抵制台灣新政府的新南向政策引導台商回台投資或至東南亞轉移。 本文選擇以「廣西兩岸產業合作園區」為例,來說明中共在習近平新時代下對台商的政策涵蓋上述所言「內外兼顧」的政經思考,亦可了解最新台商所面臨到投資經營環境的機遇與挑戰。
In recent years, China’s economic transformation has led to a rapid change in the investment environment, with the increasing costs of land, labor, production, and relevant expenditure. As a result, many traditional industries and Taiwanese OEM companies have faced serious problems in industrial transformation and upgrading. Some of them are forced to decide either to quit producing or to move to other regions or countries. Ever since the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Chinese government has accelerated the supply-side structural reform, and China’s industrial upgrading and transforming have faced not only high market competitiveness, but also the challenges of increasing costs of the business operation at environmental protection and social security. Under these circumstances, Taiwanese companies have faced unprecedented pressure from the business operation and market competition. Due to the transformation of the investment environment in the new era of Xi Jin-ping, the Chinese Communist Party’s policies towards Taiwanese businesses also differ from the previous ones, such as the "Three-plus-one" trading-mix of the traditional processing industries in the 1980s, the OEMs of the computer industries in the 1990s, and the industrial cooperation between Taiwan and China at the supply chain in the global production after 2000. Under the leadership of Xi Jin-ping, Chinese government have provided guidance and support policies to those Taiwanese businesses that have difficulties in transformation and upgrading. However, these new types of Taiwanese business policies have their own political and economic considerations both internally and externally. Internally, the new policies have provided policy incentives to lead Taiwanese businesses to invest in the new-type Taiwanese business parks, easing off the pressure of upgrading and promoting local prosperity in the new parks. Hence, those new parks are located in border areas or inland. Externally, they have actively assisted Xi Jin-ping in building the foreign economic strategy " The Belt and Road Initiative ". This also refrains Taiwanese businesses from transferring their investment back to Taiwan or to Southeast Asia thanks to the new southbound policy promoted by Taiwanese government. This thesis conducts a case study at “Guangxi Cross-Strait Industrial Cooperation Park,” expounding Xi Jin-ping’s new policies towards Taiwanese businesses in terms of both internal and external considerations. It also attempts to inquire the opportunities and challenges that Taiwanese businesses are to cope with.

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兩岸關係, 台商政策, 一帶一路, 新南向政策, 兩岸產業合作園區, Cross-strait relations, Taiwanese businesses policies, The Belt and Road Initiative, New Southbound Policy, Cross-Strait Industrial Cooperation Park

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