高中優質化輔助方案執行之個案研究─從利害關係人的觀點探究 A Case Study of Implementation of School Actualization Program- Viewpoint of Stakeholders

Date
2010
Authors
林偉鈞
Wei-Jung Lin
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Abstract
義務教育的延長是臺灣長久以來規劃的目標,例如十二年國教的推動。從政策的脈絡分析,「高中優質化輔助方案」(簡稱SAP)更是其中而先導的關鍵計畫。但是相關研究SAP實施成效的文獻卻無法反應出此關鍵計畫的重要性,特別是探究學校利害關係人的觀點。 本研究試圖了解在學校體系中的利害關係人如何執行SAP,包括了解隱藏在其中的微觀政治現象、瞭解學校利害關係人的互動對SAP執行的影響。本研究定義四種學校利害關係人,分別是:校長、行政人員、教師以及家長。他們各有不同的興趣與關注而使用不同的政治策略以謀求最大的利益。 為了對學校利害關係人的互動有廣泛的了解,本研究以一所完全中學為個案對象並採取質性研究取徑中訪談法與觀察法進行蒐集資料。 經由對於資料的綜和分析與討論的結果,本研究結論如下 壹、學校利害關係人推動SAP時會有不同利益考量。 貳、利害關係人如對SAP的理念認同將超越個人利益付出。 參、利害關係人在推動SAP時,會以考量到雙方面能維持和諧關係為要務。 肆、利害關係人的在推動SAP訴求的利益是多重聚合體,重複交集越多的利益越難被影響、越想保護。 伍、利害關係人反省其他利害關係人利益的是具有不對稱。 陸、利害關係人對於學校推動SAP式表達支持,但有些人不知如何著手。 柒、學校長與主任多用職權或感召的影響策略;組長多用法規命令的保護策略;教師多用結盟的策略。 捌、學校行政間屬於支持型的利害關係人互動類型;教師與行政則呈現邊際型的利害關係人互動類型。 根據研究結論對學校利害關係人推動SAP的見如下: 一、校長可善用人格感召策略及超然角色以整合利害關係人推動SAP。 二、行政人員可正向看待與利害關係人良性互動並開啟SAP對話管道。 三、行政人員要提供教師合理的獎懲機制以爭取推動SAP的助力。 四、高中教師可以專業社群方式迴避壓迫,重新塑造推動SAP的專業利益關係。
Extending the length of compulsory education in Taiwan has been an objective of educational policy for a long time, such as Twelve-Year Compulsory Education. Analyzing its context, School Actualization Program (SAP) is a pilot and key program of Twelve-Year Compulsory Education. But there are few studies research the outcome of SAP implement, especially on the viewpoint of school’s stakeholders. The study explores the stakeholders’ implementation of SAP in a complete high school system. It includes of investigating the embedded problems within the micropolitical phenomena, understanding the impacts of SAP implement on school’s stakeholders’ interaction. In this study, the school’s stakeholders are defined as four types of school’s stakeholders-principal, administrators, teachers and parents. They will concern about different interests and use the different political strategies to obtain the most benefits. In order to have a comprehensive understanding of school’s stakeholders’ interaction, this study takes a complete high school senior as a case study and adopts qualitative approaches, such as methods of interview and observation to collect data. According to the result of data analysis and discussion, the conclusions are synthesized as follows: 1. School’s stakeholders will concern about different interests to implement SAP. 2. School’s stakeholders will do their best if they identify the idea about SAP. 3. School’s stakeholders will first concern about the harmonious interactive relationship when they implement SAP. 4. School’s stakeholders’ interests were synthetic. If their interests were more synthetic they were more protected. 5. School’s stakeholders reflection others’ interests were asymmetric. 6. School’s stakeholders support school participate SAP, but they have no idea to put forth effort. 7. Principal frequently used the strategies of authority and show as a model; Staff frequently used protected strategy about law and order; Teachers frequently used the strategy of cooperative alliance. 8. School’s stakeholders’ interaction about administrators belongs to “Supported Type”; School’s stakeholders’ interaction between administrators and teachers belongs to “Marginal Type”. According to the conclusions above, the suggestions to the school’s stakeholders participate SAP as follows: 1. Principal should use the strategy of show as a model and integrated stakeholders' consensus to participate SAP. 2. Administrators could take positive viewpoint for the good mutuality of stakeholders and open the communication of SAP. 3. School’s administrative system should provide the reward-and-punishment mechanisms to strive for assistance of implementation of SAP. 4. Senior high school’s teacher could develop professional community to avoid the press and they should restructure the professional relationship of SAP.
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高中優質化輔助方案, 學校利害關係人, School Actualization Program (SAP), school's stakeholders
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