翻譯日本虛擬歌手:「鏡音樂坊」的粉絲字幕實踐 Translating Japanese virtual idols: Fansubbing practices of “Kagamine Lab”

Date
2021
Authors
高詣軒
Gao, Yi-Syuan
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Abstract
日本動漫、遊戲等次文化產業相關商品,近數十年來快速在全球市場上盛行。分析大多認為日本次文化作品善於建構跳脫現實日本的「異世界」,能夠開放各地消費者發展出獨特於自身脈絡的粉絲參與形式。然而,在日本次文化全球化的過程中,語言文化障礙是不可忽視的一道高牆,粉絲翻譯、字幕組的存在也凸顯現有傳播流程中的語言隔閡,需要透過觀眾自發的參與來彌補。本文從日本次文化中具代表性的「虛擬歌手」文化出發,探討虛擬歌手歌曲如何跨越語言障礙擴散到台灣以及廣義華語文化圈地區。本文以在2014年於影音頻道上成型的粉絲字幕平台「鏡音樂坊」作為研究對象,透過對成員的線上訪談與對相關社群的網路觀察,分析鏡音樂坊的粉絲字幕實踐模式,包括成員的參與動機、字幕製作流程、成員與上下游社群的互動關係、如何因應版權爭議等。本文亦探討鏡音樂坊成員在虛擬社群的身分實踐,分析他們如何成為有效的傳播中介,並豐富虛擬歌手的文化內涵。研究結果發現,鏡音樂坊成員展現身為日本次文化粉絲的參與性,一方面提供下游觀眾委託、參與粉絲字幕平台互動的管道,也會和上游創作者就版權爭議協商溝通。參與鏡音樂坊期間,成員的日常生活也穿梭在現實工作、學業和線上的複數虛擬身分之間,展現主體的多元角色。
In recent decades, Japanese subculture industry has been producing myriad commodities that attract customers all around the world. Some analysts believe these commodities, albeit originated in Japan, offer a virtual alternative reality that allows even overseas customers to participate in different fan activities in accordance with their distinct social contexts. However, language barrier still stands in the way of the globalization of Japan’s popular culture, a fact manifested by the existence of fan translation or fansubbing groups run independently by local fans. This thesis focuses on those people who help Japanese virtual idols, characteristic of Japanese subculture, overcome language differences and appeal to Chinese-speaking fans. This research draws on the case of the “Kagamine Lab,” a fansubbing platform that started producing subbed videos for virtual idol-related MVs since 2014. Through online interviews and observation, this study looks at what the fansubbers’ motivations are, how they produce videos and interact with online community, and how they deal with copyright controversies. The ways the Kagamine Lab’s members build or play with their virtual identities and meanwhile enrich the transnational landscape of virtual idol culture are also examined. The results show the fansubbers’ practices can illustrate the participatory nature of Japanese subcultural fandom: they receive commissions from downstream followers and negotiate with upstream creators on copyright. Their daily lives are shared between different virtual and “real-life” roles, demonstrating multilayered subjectivity.
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Keywords
粉絲字幕, 粉絲翻譯, 歌詞翻譯, 虛擬歌手, 日本次文化, 迷群, fansubbing, fan translation, lyrics translation, virtual idols, Japanese subculture, fandom
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