日本反恐政策之研究 Japan's Counter-Terrorism Policy

Date
2019
Authors
徐嘉徽
Hsu, Chia-Hui
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Abstract
日本國會於2001年10月通過「反恐特別措施法」,作為日本派遣自衛隊支援美國進行反恐戰爭之法律依據,成為日本參與國際反恐之基石。目前為因應2020年東京奧運,日本政府於2017年6月15日通過備受爭議的反恐法案「共謀罪」,該法修改刑法中僅對內亂、外患預備犯設有刑罰之部分,將犯罪處罰時間點前置化,只要有兩人以上的準備犯罪(共謀罪所包含的277種犯罪態樣),政府即可依法課以刑責。本次修法遭反對派人士抨擊為政府的思想控制和濫用搜查權,這些維權聲浪向來亦是各國政府推動反恐法之障礙。 隨著日本反恐政策的建立,可以讓我們觀察日本反恐思維的變化,以及反恐時代東亞國家之因應。中華民國雖非聯合國會員國,但身為國際社會一分子,自不能置身於世界反恐怖行動及維護國際和平之外。中華民國法務部曾分別於2003年、2007年提出「反恐怖行動法草案」送交立院審議,惟因反恐法案中涉及監聽、扣押、凍結財產等作法,在反恐需求與人權保障中難以衡平正反意見,加上屆期不連續審議等原因,皆未能完成立法。 目前中華民國對於恐怖活動的情蒐、管制及防制資助恐怖主義行為等,主要規範於「國家情報工作法」、「入出國及移民法」及「資恐防制法」等等,因缺乏反恐專法,因此有其運用及目的上的差異,加上無明確的定義與對恐怖攻擊的認知,由司法機關依據現行刑法規定加以論罪的結果,恐無法有效遏止以不特定群眾或關鍵基礎設施為攻擊對象、應列為課以較重刑罰的恐怖攻擊。他山之石,可以攻錯,剖析日本反恐政策與反恐法的建構,將有助檢視中華民國檢討參與國際反恐之機制,並作為確保國家安全與社會治安反恐政策之擬定參考。
With the establishment of Japan’s counter-terrorism policies, we can take a deeper look into the evolution of Japan’s counter-terrorism efforts, as well as East Asian countries’ responses in the age of counter-terrorism. Currently Taiwan government’s efforts to collect intelligence on terrorism and prevent terrorism financing are mainly regulated by the National Intelligence Service Law, the Immigration Act, as well as the Terrorism Financing Prevention Law, which, in terms of application and purposes, are different from a specific law against terrorism. In addition, due to the lack of a clear definition and understanding of terrorism and terrorist attacks, the enforcement of the above-mentioned laws is subject to administrative discretion. Furthermore, convicting terrorists with the existing criminal law is not enough to deter terrorists from killing random people, attacking critical infrastructure, or committing crimes that should be punished with harsher penalties. By analyzing Japan’s experience in establishing counter-terrorism policies and legal system, we can review Taiwan’s mechanism of enforcing international counter-terrorism acts, and accordingly come up with suggestion for formulating counter-terrorism policies that better safeguard national security and social order.
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Keywords
恐怖主義, 日本反恐政策, 東京奧運, Terrorism, Japan’s counter-terrorism policy, 2020 Tokyo Olympics
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