紹興辛巳親征詔草的隱沒與再現—兼論和議國是確立後歷史書寫的避忌現象

Date
2015-06-??
Authors
楊俊峰
Yang, Jun-feng
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國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History
Abstract
本文探討「紹興辛巳親征詔草」傳衍的歷史, 藉此分析隆興和議簽訂, 宋、金和議「國是」再確立後, 士人書寫紹、隆之際和戰不定的歷史,出現「自我避忌」的現象。這份詔草附著了許多高、孝二帝對和戰不定的訊息, 點竄者陳康伯( 1097-1165) 有意隱匿此帖, 交予姻親何澹( 1146-1219) 家族保管, 以致作者的身份長期成謎,而眾說紛紜。然而,對這段歷史的隱晦是時代的通相,在權力毛細管的作用下,此時私家行狀、誌文的書寫策略皆出現自我避忌的現象,直至光宗、寧宗朝後,士人的歷史書寫才逐漸出現自我解禁的現象。慶元年間,韓侂冑(1152-1207)執政集團刻意擦亮陳康伯此一抗金招牌,此詔的原稿得以重新問世。他們利用士大夫官僚觀覽、題跋書帖的文化機制,舖陳了抗金行動的政治氛圍,以便喚起隱沒已久的歷史記憶。這份詔草隱微的問世過程,本身是一項有計劃的政治行動,可說是開禧北伐行動的序曲的一部分。
In addition to an inquiry into a history of the transmission of the rescript of crusade by Gaozong in 1161, this article discusses the self-censorship among the literati in their writings about the event happened in the early 1160s after the peace agreement of Longxing was recognized as the state policy. The text of the rescript bears a great deal of information about the two emperors' varied opinions swung between war and peace. Chen Kangbo, who polished the text, had concealed it from the public and let his in-laws keep it for quite a long time, which rendered the authentic author a riddle. In fact, the concealing of the truth of political happenings was quite a pervasive phenomenon at that time. Even the writings of personal biographies and private inscriptions exhibited the same kind of self-censorship. It was not until the Qingyuan period when Chancellor Han Tuozhou made use of the militaristic image of Chen Kangbo to call on a crusade against the Jurchens, did this text emerged again to the public. They took the advantage of the custom of reading into and commenting upon the calligraphic texts among the literati to foster the atmosphere of the anti-Jurchen action in order to evoke the long forgotten memory of the crusade. Arguably, the reappearance of this specific text was obviously a well-planned political design and served as a prelude to the military action in the Kaixi years.
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