身心障礙音樂才能優異學生指導者教育信念之研究 Educational Beliefs of the Instructors of the Musically-Talented Students with Disabilities

Date
2009
Authors
吳舜文
Wu, Shunwen
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Abstract
身心障礙者的學習本來就較一般人困難,而身心障礙資優生雖有特殊或特定之才能表現,仍須克服周遭環境帶來的壓力與質疑,故在學習過程中,若能遇到具有熱忱並能給予適切學習引導之指導者,可能會促使其能力充分開展。據此,為深入了解身心障礙音樂才能優異學生指導者之教育信念,本研究採行深度訪談,邀請八位具有身心障礙學生音樂教學經驗之指導者為研究參與者,透過質性研究歷程分析其教育信念內涵,經由訪談資料蒐集、整理、編碼、分析及檢核,提出研究結論如下: 一、「對象選擇及能力評估」層面之教育信念包括:1.指導者對於對象選擇抱持「教育零拒絕」的態度;2.指導者對於教學對象能夠兼容其能力之差異;3.指導者認為透過適當管道將有助於對學生的事前了解;4.音感是指導者首要了解學生音樂能力的部分;5.流暢的演奏表現是指導者據以觀察學生能力的方式;6.大多數指導者認為位移動作是視障學生較難克服的技巧;7.指導者認為能力評估過程應給予學生具有安全感的環境。 二、「學習及課程規劃」層面之教育信念包括:1.教材選擇應適合學生能力並符合音樂學習內容之均衡性;2.教材選擇應考量學生的喜好及學習當下之需求;3.指導者偏好選擇具有清晰主題與和聲伴奏之學習曲目;4.學生的位移動作、音質調整及合奏經驗應予充實;5.指導者認為學生應有更進階之音樂專業發展;6.指導者認為學生活動過多往往會影響練習品質;7.指導者對於學生未來就讀音樂班或出國發展之觀點不一。 三、「教學方法與教學調整」層面之教育信念包括:1.指導者認為了解學生習性及常就教於家長有助於教學;2.指導者均認為錄音是有效的教學方式;3.指導者認為觸覺的運用亦可提昇對音樂的感知與想像;4.群體合作、曲目調整、音階變化可作為教學調整的作法;5.指導者應發揮創意以解決教學現場學生的學習問題;6.對於學生不同的障礙情形應給予適切的教學引導方式。 四、指導者對於音樂特殊教育工作的整體觀點包括:1.教師應該要肯定學生的才能並引導他們正確的音樂學習;2.教師必須熟悉個人的專業並能適時調整教學方法;3.教師要具有反思的能力以提升個人教學知能及品質;4.未來有志從事音樂特殊教育工作者應有充分的思考與準備。 依據研究結論,研究者並提出建議如下: 一、對於音樂教師及特殊教育教師的建議包括:1.接納學生;2.多方面調整教學;3.善用家長力量。 二、對於社會大眾的建議包括:1.給予從事音樂特殊教育工作者更多支持;2.提供必要之社會資源;3.建立對身心障礙學生才能的正面認知。 三、對於音樂教育及特殊教育機構的建議包括:1.提供更多學術研究及教學資源;2.給予音樂特殊教育教師實質鼓勵與肯定。 四、對於未來研究的建議包括:1.進行個案長期追蹤;2.加入教學現場的觀察;3.依據不同音樂學習項目深入探討。
Learners with disabilities always face more difficulty than the general students. Even though they are gifted and talented, they still have to struggle with much pressure and doubt from other people, society and environment. Thus, an instructor with enthusiasm, devotion, and skillfulness in teaching strategies might change their fate and lead them to success. This study focused on the exploration of the educational beliefs of the instructors of musically-talented students with disabilities. Eight music instructors, with the teaching experience of such dual-exceptional students, were invited for research participants. Through the in-depth interviews and data analysis, the results were concluded and stated as the following: First, the educational beliefs concerning the dimension of “object selection and ability assessment” included: 1.the instructors should maintain the teaching attitude of “zero-reject”; 2. the instructors should be compatible with the differential of students’ superiority and disadvantage; 3.appropriate ways to get the full understanding before the first lesson should be useful; 4.aural ability was the first and foremost part for the instructors to understood their pupils; 5.the fluent performance of piano playing was the concrete way for students observation; 6.the majority of the instructors believed that displacement motion was the most difficult skill for students with visual impairment to overcome; 7.the evaluation process should give students a sense of security environment. Second, the educational beliefs concerning the dimension of “learning and curriculum planning” included: 1.teaching materials should meet the ability of students and the proportionality of learning contents; 2.the teaching material should consider students’ preferences and the directorate demands; 3.instructors preferred choosing repertoire with clear theme and harmony accompaniment; 4.the displacement movements, adjustment of tonality, and the experience of ensemble should be enriched; 5.students should be more advanced to the musical professional; 6.too many activities would tend to affect the exercise quality of students; 7.students’ future development to study either in the music special program or abroad was discrepancy between instructors. Third, the educational beliefs concerning the dimension of “teaching strategies and teaching adjustment” included: 1.understanding students' habits and seeking advice from parents could be helpful; 2.recording was effective for teaching and learning; 3.the application of the tactile sense could promote the music perception and imagination of students; 4.the teamwork, repertoire modulation, and scale variation were methods for teaching adjustment; 5.instructors should create to solve the teaching and learning problems; 6.different obstacles for students should be given the appropriate scenarios for learning guidance. Fourth, the educational beliefs concerning the perspective of “the education for music special learners” included: 1.the instructors should affirm students' abilities and channel them the right music learning; 2.the instructors must be proficient in music professional and timely adjustment the teaching methods; 3.the instructors should have the ability of reflection in order to enhance the knowledge and quality of teaching; 4.for the future music instructors of special learners, sufficient reflection and preparation were essential. According to the conclusions of this study, the researcher also made several recommendations to: 1.teachers of music education and special education areas, 2.the proposal for the community, 3.the music education and special education institutions, and 4.the future studies.
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Keywords
身心障礙資優教育, 音樂才能優異教育, 雙重特殊學生, 教育信念, 音樂指導, education for the gifted handicapped, education for the musically-talented, dual-exceptional students, educational beliefs, music instruction
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