高中國文專家教師促進學生學習表現之教學與默會知識研究 A Study of a High School Mandarin Expert Teacher’s Instruction and Tacit Knowledge in Fostering Student Performance

Date
2021
Authors
蔡宜芳
Tsai, Yi-Fang
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Abstract
108課綱以「學習內容」與「學習表現」作為培養素養的媒介,在過去國文領綱較少關注學習表現的情況下,現階段該如何促進學生學習表現成為新課綱下教師們的難題。本研究選擇在公立社區型高中任教的陽老師作為研究對象,其是素養導向教學的專家,而Polanyi(1958)認為教師的教學是根據隱藏在其後的默會知識,因專家教師之默會知識難以具象化,使其很難分享給其他人,故本研究使用啟發性任務分析(heuristic task analysis)以歸納專家教師在〈出師表〉課堂中促進學生學習表現之默會知識。本研究之發現總共兩點: 一、陽老師透過翻譯、默寫、學習單討論任務促進高中生「聆聽」、「口語表達」、「識字與寫字」、「閱讀」、「寫作」之國文學習表現,並在過程中考量學生的能力提供鷹架、引導與回饋。而在其教學背後,隱含著「洞燭機先,見機行事」的默會知識。 二、在教學時間有限的情況下,能促進學習表現的關鍵在於對時間「放慢」與「加快」的調配,而非平均分配時間趕著將內容教完,因「教會」比「教完」更為重要,且長久下來便能使學生具備素養,以達到「學習遷移」的效果。 根據上述結果,本研究也為未來研究方向提供建議。
The Curriculum Guidelines of 12-Year Basic Education had mentioned that the competencies of students should be cultivated through"learning content" and "student performance". In the past, student performance was less noticed. Now, how to foster student performance has become a challenge for teachers. This study selected Teacher Sun, who is a high school mandarin expert teacher, was recruited as the participant of the study. She is an expert in competence-based teaching. Polanyi (1958) considered that teachers’ teaching practice is based on tacit knowledge. Because the tacit knowledge of expert teachers is difficult to concretize, making it difficult to share with others. As a result, this study used heuristic task analysis to analyze Teacher Sun’s tacit knowledge in fostering student performance. The results of the study are listed below: A. Teacher Sun gave students tasks of"translation", " writing from memory " and "discussion" to foster students’ performance in "listening", "oral expression", "literacy", "reading" and "writing". In the process, she took students’ abilities into consideration to provide students scaffolding, guidance and feedback. And the tacit knowledge hidden behind Teacher Sun's instruction is "understanding the context of things in advance and act accordingly." B. In the limited time, the most important key for fostering student performanceis to allocate time to"slow down" or "speed up", instead of evenly allocating the time and rushing to teach the content, because the teacher’s responsibility is not to give all the learning content to the students as soon as possible, but to let the students really learn something. In this way for a long time, it can cultivate students' competencies and achieve "Learning Transfer". According to the results of the study, this study provided some suggestions for future study.
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Keywords
默會知識, 學習表現, 專家教師, 高中國文, 素養導向教學, Tacit Knowledge, Student Performance, Expert Teacher, Mandarin in High School, Competence-Based Instruction
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