歌仔戲導演創作歷程之研究 The research of the director's creative process of Taiwanese (folk) opera

Tung Kuei Liu
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本研究旨在了解歌仔戲導演之創作為何獨具「創意」,其引發個人創意的系統是有多重原因的,如歌仔戲導演其個人特質、成長歷程、進行創作之歷程及所處之環境與文化影響之觀點。 本研究主要參與者為八位歌仔戲導演,都是具有豐富創作經驗具知名度的導演,以及他們的親友、學生與同業。研究者與八位導演均共同創作過歌仔戲曲,常一齊討論如何使歌仔戲再精進,平日也熱衷於戲曲教育與他們有共同的嗜好,對於他們的創作來源有高度興趣研究,以此研究進行半結構式的訪談,運用個別訪談、電話訪問方式蒐集資料,佐以期刊、報章、媒體相關報導與文件,以質性研究法分析、歸納研究結果如下: 一、歌仔戲導演的成長背景與人格特質 歌仔戲導演成長背景的困乏,惡劣的環境使他們更加奮鬥、努力學習,更加專注並常自我反省,態度誠懇、和善、關心他人,但性格矛盾常常孤獨思考出路;本身環境不佳使之刻苦耐勞,卻又時時關心社會,總不忘在創作中的社教功能;它們努力追求創作之新穎,記憶力佳、思考敏捷能多方向思考,兼具感性與理性。不斷學習、隨時集材;具獨特洞悉力且立身行事獨特;有理想、有遠景,對提攜後進、傳承文化與鼓勵進修不遺餘力。 二、歌仔戲導演的創造歷程 平日創作源的累積充實了不同創作歷程,對其他類藝術的觀摩與平日閱讀更加強創作靈感;題材的考量方向、構想主題激發新的連結;對人形肢體的感受與各種元素的融合,使教化人心的創造內容出現;構思確立架構、剔除多餘素材;累積長期構思、發展創作;具體呈現舞台畫面、修正創作、呈現作品;觀眾支持、外界肯定。 三、歌仔戲導演面臨的危機與社會鼓勵 今日社會,父母均給足子女的需求,環境影響,教育子女引發導演們創作的隱憂與承襲父業的辛勞;社會競爭的激烈,對傳承所賦予的希望;他們總是以身作則,對人生、對戲去導正錯誤,勇於面對的精神受到社會鼓勵。最後藉由名家的忠言,向歌仔戲相關同業呼籲:勇於創作、生機無限。 統整歸納八位歌仔戲導演的創造歷程,對其產生具創意的作品,艱辛的環境養成堅持的人格特質佔了很大的成分。日後又從創作中得到回甘與歡笑,但時代洪流與社會衝擊造成經濟衰退,導演又面對另一次困境的挑戰。最後,針對研究結果提出省思,以及對後輩、學校、家長在藝術教育與培養興趣和未來研究提出建議。
This study was designed to understand why the creations of the directors of Taiwanese opera are uniquely “creative.” There are multiple causes for the personal creativity system, for example the personal characteristics of the director, their growth process, the environment and experiences during creation, and the cultural influences on their perspective. There are eight major Taiwanese opera directors participating in this study as well as their relatives, friends, students, and peers. They are all well known directors with rich experiences in creativity. The researcher and the eight directors have co-created opera music; they often discussed how to allow Taiwanese opera to be more sophisticated, are normally zealous about opera education, and have similar interests. The researcher is highly interested in researching the source of the director’s creativity, in this research; structured interviews, individual interviews, and telephone interviews are used to collect information; accompanied by periodicals, newspapers, media reports, and documents. Through qualitative research analysis, the summarized findings are as follows: I. The growth environment and personality traits of the Taiwanese opera director The deprived background and bad environment allow the directors to work harder and strive to learn; to be more focused and often self-examine; to have sincere attitudes, be more amiable, and have consideration for others; but have personality conflicts, and often think in isolation. The bad environment allows them to build endurance, and often care about the community; to not forget the function of social education in their works; they try to strive for novelty in their creations; they have good memory, agile thinking, and can think in multiple directions; they are both emotional and rational. They are constantly learning, always collecting materials; have unique observations and independent actions; they have goals, visions, and put a lot of effort into carrying on the culture and guiding newcomers. II. The creation process of the Taiwanese opera director The accumulation of normal day creation sources has enriched different creative processes; observing other types of art and normal day reading strengthens creative inspirations; the considerations of the theme direction, and conceiving themes stimulate new connections; the feelings toward the human limbs and the integration of various elements, allow the manifestation of creative content that teaches the heart; determining the structure and getting rid of the extra material; accumulating long term thoughts and developing the creative work; showing a concrete stage image, correcting the piece, and showing the final piece; the audience support and confirmation of the external environment. III. The crisis faced by Taiwanese opera director and the encouragement of the community In today's society, parents satisfy the needs of their children, under the impact of the environment, the education of children trigger the worries of creating and the hard work of inheriting the family business. The fierce competition in society, and the hope they have toward the inheritance; they always use themselves as examples, correcting the errors in life and in the opera; their brave spirits receive theencouragement of society. At last, through the famous words of a famous master, an appeal to the related industries of Taiwanese opera: “have the courage to create, there are boundless chances for life.” Categorization of the creative processes of the eight opera directors, in the creation of their works, a big portion is from the formation of their personality traits through persistence in difficult circumstances. In the future, though they get satisfaction and joy through their creations, but the changing times and the impacts of society have caused economic recession; and the directors face another hard challenge. At the end, focusing on the research results, we have reflections from the findings; we also give suggestions to the later generations, schools, and parents about artistic education and developing interests; and also give recommendations for future research.
歌仔戲, 歌仔戲導演, 創作歷程, Taiwanese opera, Taiwanese opera director, creative process