How does a new contest experience interact with an old one to influence subsequent contest behavior?
新、舊打鬥經驗是否會改變彼此對後續打鬥行為的影響 How does a new contest experience interact with an old one to influence subsequent contest behavior?
|dc.description.abstract||The outcomes of recent contests are known to influence an individual’s behavior in subsequent contests: a winning/losing experience increases/decreases an individual’s aggressiveness and probability of winning a subsequent contest（winner/loser effect）. Animals in the field are likely to have frequent contest encounters, but how these multiple experiences combine to influence an individual’s subsequent contest behavior is rarely explored. In this study, I gave individuals of Kryptolebias marmoratus, a mangrove killifish, two contest experiences（2 days and 1 day prior to a staged contest）to examine whether the effects of these two experiences were additive or whether the effect of one experience was changed by interaction with the other. Because contest decision in this fish is influenced by experience acquired as long as one month previously, individuals that had won their last contest（about one month before this study） were paired up among themselves, as were those that had lost, and tested separately as winner and loser pairs. The results showed that a losing experience received two days previously significantly influenced fighting behavior in contests staged and caused detectable loser effects in both winner and loser pairs. A winning experience received two days previously, on the other hand, had no significant effect on the fighting behavior in contests. More interestingly, the results also showed that the way in which the two recent contest experiences combined depended on the outcome of the contest that the fish participated in one month before this study. In loser pairs, two recent consecutive winning experiences increased an individual’s probability of initiating gill displays more than if the effects of the two experiences had been additive. By contrast, in winner pairs, two consecutive losing experiences reduced an individual’s probability of initiating gill displays, initiating attacks and winning more than if the effects of the two experiences had been additive. This result may indicate that two consecutive winning or losing experiences enhance each other such that their combined effect is more than the additive.||en_US|
|dc.title||How does a new contest experience interact with an old one to influence subsequent contest behavior?||en_US|
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