文學的閱讀,死亡的敘說~資優兒童死亡世界的展露 Reading Literature, Narrating Death ~The Exposure of Gifted Children’s Death Worlds

Date
2002
Authors
陳偉仁
Chen, Wei-Ren
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Abstract
這是一個關於資優兒童死亡感知的研究,我以少年小說的閱讀,作為探看八名國小六年級資優兒童思索死亡的視框。小說文本的詮釋界乎現實與想像之間,開拓一個聚焦在「不死可能性」與「死亡必然性」的對話空間;並輔以作業單的填寫、圖畫的創作,細緻地呈現資優兒童的死亡感知。研究有如下的發現: 一、語境:資優兒童對生死的感知 透過社會事件的解讀、媒體文本的詮釋,以及個體經驗的思索,資優兒童呈現出情感發抒、評價分析、狀態觀察等多元的思維風貌。細究八名資優兒童的死亡感知,有幾點共通特質:年幼時對死亡終極性的「問」;洞察事物,進行評價分析;交織訊息,延展死亡敏覺力;意識死亡的恐懼與不安,進行選擇性的表露。 二、故事:資優兒童詮釋少年小說 我將兒童的生死感知視為故事的語境脈絡,從脈絡中粹取出的兩個焦點,讓四本少年小說登場。兒童對「不死可能性」的存活狀態有著豐富的論述,顯現出生態韻律法則與個體想望的掙扎痕跡,其間交錯著擺盪過程中的相對性思考。漸入現實境遇,「死亡必然性」的詮釋中,以虛擬的情境凝視真實的死亡,生活經驗成為主要的詮釋脈絡,一則則鮮活的勸慰與比喻,是資優兒童敘事智慧的展現。 三、隱喻:故事在情境中顯義 資優兒童對少年小說的詮釋是一個「意向所指」的世界,我將它讀成一個個故事,探究故事可能的隱喻。兒童敘說「不死可能性」的故事,彷彿兩端的拉鋸戰,我歸納出三種思維辯證:眷戀的依存是迫近的考驗,生態韻律抗衡生死控制/選擇權,不死狀態顛覆形貌相符。「死亡必然性」是在隱諱氛圍中訴說的故事,兒童的想像猜疑接軌的向死存在的生命,就在與文本相遇之際,浮現出對生命的省思。研究並選擇三名資優兒童,以過度激動、心靈敏感度、創意直覺等資優特質,進行個案式的剖析。 整體而言,閱讀歷程中資優兒童展露了對死亡的感知,建議以生活經驗建構一個對話式的生死教育課室,提供寫實與虛構的文學閱讀,延展死亡的思索。在後續研究方面,可從取信結構深究兒童的感知,並重視思考傾向與表徵形式的探究,並從研究互動的歷程,考量方法的多元性。
This is a study concerning gifted children’s death perception. Reading young-adult fiction (YA fiction) was the frame to explore how eight sixth-grade gifted children perceived death. When they interpreted the text from reality to imagination, the dialogue focused on the topics of ‘the inevitability of death’ and ‘the possibility of on-death’. Through interpreting YA fiction, writing worksheets, drawing, children’s death perception was analyzed and interpreted. What follows are some major findings about the study. 1. Context: gifted children’s death perception Gifted children showed three perception dimensions (feeling, analyzing, observing) to considerate social events, media text, and self-experiences. Furthermore, the eight gifted children’s death perception shared some common traits: questing the inevitability of death, gaining insight to analyze events, combining informationto expand the sensibility of death, realizing fear and tension from death to disclose some aspects of their death perception. 2. Story: gifted children interpret YA fiction When children discussed ‘the possibility of no-death’, they presented a variety of ideas and viewpoints. However, their interpretation oscillated between ecological rules to individual wishes. By contrast, when children discussed ‘the inevitability of death’, the life experiences became the main contextual interpretation. Items of meaningful metaphors about death revealed their narrative wisdom, though. 3. Metaphor: Stories in the context What gifted children interpreted YA fiction was ‘the intention world’, such as stories full of metaphors. The stories about ‘the possibility of no-death’ were featured by conflicts of death, including three dimensions: the attachment to life vs. the approaching trial, the ecological rules vs. the right of life-and-death, and the state of no-death vs. the agreement of form and structure. They told the story of ‘the inevitability of death’ in the obscure atmosphere. When they guessed death to follow the life of being to death, their mind emerged the reflection of their life according to the text. The present research also analyzed in terms of case study three gifted children’s interpretation by the traits of over-excitability, spiritual sensitivity, and creative intuition. Implications for the practice include constructing the dialogue life-and-death curriculums based on real-life experiences and using realistic and fictitious literature to expand the considerations of death. Suggestions for future researches consist of investigating the belief structure, paying attention to the thinking styles and the presentations of death perception, and employing the multiple research methods where possible.
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資優兒童, 死亡感知, 少年小說, 文本詮釋, gifted children, death perception, young-adult fiction, interpretation
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