空服員領導啟示錄-以空服員觀點探討E航空公司事務長團隊領導之研究

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2018

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航空公司客艙組員團隊擁有成員不固定、臨時性以及短時間團隊的特性,而臨時團隊也將成為未來組織的發展趨勢。由於團隊成員可能來自不同背景,且擁有不一樣的專長、人格特質與態度,客艙領導者事務長如何於有限時間內掌握充分良好的溝通、適當的領導方式與風格、促使團隊目標一致等,才可使整個客艙組員團隊發揮最大效能,達成團隊共同目標將會是一大挑戰。綜觀過往文獻中,關於航空公司團隊領導及以部屬觀點與角度探討領導之文獻甚少,故本研究目的為以非事務長職級之空服員觀點,探討事務長空中團隊領導之要素,並分析事務長可提升與影響團隊領導要素之特質與行為。本研究結合團隊發展模型五階段與空中團隊特性,發展出空中團隊建置三大階段分別為「飛行前簡報」、「飛行中工作」及「飛行後簡報」,研究對象為E航空公司非事務長職級之空服員。第一部份發放九十五份開放式問卷,探討事務長於此三大階段團隊領導之要素。第二部份透過半結構式訪談,訪問六十位空服員認為事務長可提升或影響團隊領導要素之特質與行為,並以內容分析法進行分析。本研究結果發現,事務長適宜的領導特質需擁有良好的人格特質、人際關係與工作態度,而「飛行前簡報」適宜的領導行為構面分別為建立團隊內規與團隊任務、團隊凝聚與激勵、良好成員互動及以身作則;「飛行中工作」為執行團隊任務、解決問題、團隊凝聚與激勵及良好成員互動;「飛行後簡報」為檢討與分享、團隊激勵及良好成員互動。最後做出結論與建議,提供事務長、航空公司企業管理者日後規劃事務長訓練課程及事務長遴選作為參考。
The cabin crew team of airlines has the characteristics about unfixed members, temporary and short-term teams. Also, the temporary team will become the trend in the future organization. Since the team members may come from different backgrounds, and have different skills, personality traits and attitudes, it will be a difficult challenge for chief purser to have sufficient communication, proper leadership styles, and consistent team goals within a limited period of time, so that the cabin crew team can maximize efficiency and performance, and achieve the common goal. In the past, there were few literatures studied about cabin crew team leadership. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to discuss the elements of chief purser team leadership, and analyze the leadership traits and behaviors of chief purser which influence the elements of chief purser team leadership from the perspective of cabin crew. This study developed three stages of cabin crew team building according to the five-stages model and the characteristics of cabin crew team. The three stages of cabin crew team building are "Pre-Flight Briefing," "In-Flight Service" and "De-Briefing". This study took E Airlines cabin crews except chief purser as a research object, and used qualitative research method. The first part was analyzed through an open questionnaire from 95 cabin crews’ opinions to discuss the elements of chief purser team leadership. The second part used semi-structured interviews. This study interviewed 60 cabin crews who thought the leadership traits and behaviors of chief purser could enhance or influence the elements of chief purser team leadership, and analyzed by the content analysis method. The results have found that the appropriate team leadership traits of chief purser need to have good personality traits, interpersonal relationships, and work attitudes. The appropriate leadership behaviors of chief purser during “Pre-Flight Briefing” are to establish team rules and tasks, team cohesion and motivation, good interaction with team members, and leading by example; “In-Flight Service” are the execution of team tasks, problem solving, team cohesion and motivation, and good interaction with team members; “De-Briefing” are review and sharing, team motivation, and good interaction with team members. Finally, this study made a conclusion and suggestion, which provided the chief purser, airline managers and the training courses for chief purser as a reference.

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團隊領導, 空中團隊, 事務長, 空服員, 客艙組員, 領導特質, 領導行為, team leadership, cabin crew team, chief purser, flight attendant, cabin crew, leadership traits, leadership behavior

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