運用心智圖與師生對話提升自閉症高中生寫作歷程之研究 An Action Research of Improving the Writing of Autistic High School Students: Using Mind Map and Classroom Discourse

Date
2020
Authors
蘇倍儀
Su, Pei-Yi
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Abstract
本研究採行動研究,以心智圖輔以師生對話為寫作教學的主要策略,教導二位自閉症高中生依序學習論說、記敘、記敘兼抒情文的完整寫作歷程,詳細探討自閉症高中生寫作與修正的困難及問題解決的歷程,並針對過程中面臨的問題,提出有效的解決策略。 研究結果可分為四部分: 一、心智圖在學生各期寫作歷程提供支持,處理自閉症高中生身心特質所造成的困難——前期處理寫作動機、計畫、組織與統整,中期強化讀者意識,後期則能結合掛勾策略、關連線、範文閱讀以有效進行部分的獨立書寫。教學的實施上需視學生程度,從分段心智圖引導書寫段落文章,逐步遞進到全文心智圖書寫數段作品,研究前期發現採用分段心智圖教學,學生的書寫文體並未受到限制。 二、自閉症學生抽象書寫困難的因應上,心智圖策略無法全面協助,須透過師生對話成為鷹架由教師判斷學生的寫作能力給予適合的過程性引導,如:師生對話以譬喻、事例、課文、對比增加有利篇幅,教師語音輸入讓學生確認作品是否適用、結合範文閱讀,協助學生將書寫類化為帶得走的寫作能力。 三、研究顯示接受本寫作教學的兩位自閉症高中生在教師觀察、學生與母親填寫的問卷顯示寫作態度、興趣與寫作策略的表現均有提升;外校教師的評分則呈現寫作能力的提升。 四、經由歷程的學習,兩位自閉症高中生能獨立使用電腦編輯作品,但遇文書軟體突發狀況仍需引導與機會教學。 本研究結果顯示運用心智圖與師生對話可協助自閉症高中生達到新課綱對一般學生的寫作表現要求,研究者也根據研究發現提出對家長、老師和未來研究者的建議:需重視寫作溝通的本質,理解孩子(學生)真正的需求勝過要孩子(學生)立刻書寫作文、留心特殊生和一般生在能夠自立及與社會和諧生活之教育目標的一致性,並在學生情緒上給予無條件的支持與同理,最後提出未來寫作教學將繼續努力與成長的方向。
In this study, action research was applied. The two autistic high school students were taught to learn about narration, narrative, narrative and lyric writing. The mind maps with dialogue between teacher and student were the main strategies to teach writing. The difficulties and problems of autism high school students' writing were discussed and solved. The major findings are summarized as follows: 1. Mind maps provided support for students' writing process in each period and dealt with the difficulties caused by physical and mental traits of autistic high school students:Mind maps handled writing motivation, planning, organization, and integration in the early stage, promoted audience awareness in the middle stage, using Mind Map strategies and normal articles reading for effective partial writing in the late stage. The implementation of teaching depended on the level of students, from segmented mind maps to guide the writing of paragraphs, and gradually to the full text of mind maps to write several works. 2. Mind map strategies couldn’t fully assist autistic students in abstract writing difficulties. Dialogue between teacher and student need adding as a scaffold. The teacher assessed the students' writing ability to provide appropriate process guidance. For example,combined using technique of taphors, examples, texts, and contrasts for increasing the useful content, using technique of voice input for confirmation of students’ applicable sentences, and using technique of normal articles reading, to helped students’ writing. 3. Research showed that the two autistic high school students who had accepted this writing teaching had shown improvement in teacher observation and the questionnaire filled by students and their mothers for their writing attitudes, interests, and writing strategies; the scores of teachers in other schools also showed the improvement of writing ability . 4.Through the learning, two high school students with autism could independently use their computers to edit their articles, but they still need guidance for document software troubleshooting. The results of this study showed that the use of mind maps to dialogue between teacher and student could help autistic high school students achieved the writing performance of general students of the new curriculum. The research finally puts forward the direction that future writing teaching will continue to work hard and grow, and also make the following suggestions to parents, teachers and future researchers conclusion: 1. Pay attention to the essence of writing communication. 2. Understanding the real needs of children (students) is better than asking them to write and write. 3. Pay attention to the consistency of the educational goals of special students and ordinary students who can be independent and live in harmony with society. 4. Give unconditional support and empathy to students' emotions.
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Keywords
自閉症高中生, 心智圖, 師生對話, 寫作教學, autistic high school students, mind maps, dialogue between teacher and student, writing teaching
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