清代韻圖《翻切簡可篇》研究 The Study of the Rhyme Charts “Fan Qie Jian Ke Pian” in the Qing Dynasty

Date
2020
Authors
林芳如
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Abstract
  《翻切簡可篇》為清代中晚期韻圖,由張燮承修訂而成。全書共分上下兩卷,韻圖採橫直圖形式,分十九聲母、三十三韻母及陰平、陽平、上、去、入等五個聲調。《翻切簡可篇》和清代《御定康熙字典等韻》密切相關,在韻目名稱、聲母、韻母結構分類、收字和借字等方面皆有承襲並修改的痕跡。又因其刊行動機意在啟發童蒙,書中刪倂韻目力求簡易,而有寄借之法;並設有多條口訣為初學指路。其全濁聲母俱已清化,有舌尖韻母和/ɤ/韻母,平分陰陽,入聲兼配陰聲韻和陽聲韻等等音韻特色,正反映漢語北方音系發展至清代中晚期所經歷的大部分音韻變化。   本文歸納《翻切簡可篇》的聲母特點有全濁聲母皆已清化、知系與照系聲母已經合併、泥母與娘母無有分別、非敷奉三母合併、影疑微喻四母合併、顎化聲母與捲舌聲母應已產生。韻母特點則有依據介音分成開口呼正韻、合口呼正韻、開口呼副韻、合口呼副韻,舌尖韻母應已產生,已有/ɤ/韻母存在,雙唇鼻音韻尾消失,入聲兼配於陰聲韻與陽聲韻。聲調特點則有平分陰陽、入聲消失。此外《翻切簡可篇》之韻圖有韻目之間互相寄借刪倂等設計,本文研究歸納其韻目間寄借類型有收字重出、正常寄借、無字寄借、來源不明、跨越分類,此外尚有合併韻目。書中運用寄借合併之法,減少承自《御定康熙字典等韻》的韻目數量,刪去無字或字少韻目,亦達到作為啟蒙韻圖之易讀鵠的。   《翻切簡可篇》以其三十三韻橫直圖附隨數條口訣,授以初學及童蒙者簡易熟習音韻之法,亦記錄當時的音韻發展情況,展現其作為清代中晚期北方官話音系的整體面貌。
"Fan Qie Jian Ke Pian" is a handbook composing rhyme charts in the middle-to-late Qing Dynasty edited by Zhang Xiecheng. The book is divided into two volumes, and the rhyme chart is in the form of horizontal-vertical diagrams. It includes 19 consonants, 33 vowels, and 5 tones, which are yin, yang, shang, qu, ru. "Fan Qie Jian Ke Pian" is closely related to "Yu Ding Kang Xi Zi Dian Deng Yun" of the Qing Dynasty, especially the rhyme chart contains many characters from "Yu Ding Kang Xi Zi Dian Deng Yun". Since its motivation for writing the book is to enlighten children, there are rules for depositing, borrowing rhymes, as well as many mnemonic phrases. The initials, finals, tones of “Fan Qie Jian Ke Pian” have all experienced most of the phonological changes of the northern Chinese phonology in the middle-to-late Qing Dynasty.
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《翻切簡可篇》, 《御定康熙字典等韻》, 韻圖, 寄借, 橫直圖, Fan Qie Jian Ke Pian, Yu Ding Kang Xi Zi Dian Deng Yun, rhyme charts, depositing and borrowing, horizontal-vertical diagram
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