多元表現的資優者:生涯發展與自我概念形塑之探究 Multiple Performances of Gifted Individuals:Career Developmentand the Formulation of Self-concept

Date
2021
Authors
林家安
Lin, Chia-An
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Abstract
本研究目的在於了解曾有過生涯轉換的資優者們其生涯發展與自我概念形塑的經驗。透過三位有兩項以上才能的資優成人敘說重現其成長背景及歷程;著重探討其自我概念的形塑歷程、及生涯轉換因素。本研究採用融入或結晶化的分析法,以整體-內容的敘事形式進行分析。 研究結果分為兩部分撰寫,第一部分針對研究參與者個別進行其成長經驗的分析與探討,照見三位研究參與者相異的成長脈絡、與歷程中交織而成的自我概念形塑狀態、以及生涯轉換因素;第二部分進入生涯發展、自我概念兩向度的跨個案分析與討論。研究參與者的成長經歷會因個體的差異而有所不同,但整體而言,可以下列幾點進行歸納: 一、在社會我層面,資優者因為不同的職業、志趣而有很大的差異,他們亦可能在各個時期展現對社會價值觀不同程度的在意。 二、在精神我層面,資優者的個人偏好常是穩定不變的,他們多能在早年與他人的互動中建立他們獨特的性格與價值觀。 三、在面對自我概念的擴充時,他們多能預先做好相關準備,不至於面臨衝擊、對立或衝突;生涯轉換對自我概念的影響會是在個人狀態穩定表現的歷程中;若能肯認其表現,新的角色會順利相容,擴充原先的自我概念。 四、資優者在其早年階段的生涯經驗,多能清楚感知到自己的多元興趣、並展現一至數種才能。在早年的生涯經驗裡,家庭、社會價值觀常是影響他們生涯決定最重要的因素,當這些決定與興趣、信念有所違背時,往往會造成強烈的內在衝突、引發負面情緒。 五、資優者在其青年階段的生涯經驗,能因早期經驗而生的動機,尤其是個體的興趣、信念會是引領他們前進的重要方向;面對社會角色的改變時,也能運用其前瞻因應的能力做好準備,並對自己的才能表現狀態持續進行評估,悅納或再反覆探索。 六、多元表現的資優者能在其早年、甚至學齡前發覺自己的不同領域的多元興趣;各才能在發展歷程中因不同的驅力向前邁進,但大抵都有以下四個階段的發展,包含探索階段、準備階段、發展階段、穩定階段。 針對本研究發現,研究者提供以下建議:一、對資優者的建議包含擁抱迷惘的前進、維持自我的清奇、探索興趣的多元;二、對社會的建議:避免標籤他人、更避免標籤自己。
The main purpose of this research was to explore the career development and self-concept of gifted individuals who have had career changes. Through the narrative study, it explored the formulation process of their self-concept and career transformation factors from three gifted adults with two or more talents. This research adopted the in-depth interview and data collection methods to analyze their learning and working process by the form of “whole-content” model. The study results were written in two parts, first, the analysis and discussion of the growth experience of the research participants individually. Second, the cross-case analysis and discussion of career development and self-concept. The main findings of this research were stated as follows: 1. At the “social me” level of self-concept, the gifted had great differences because of their different occupations and interests. They might also show varying degrees of concern for social values in various periods. 2. At the “spiritual me” level of self-concept, the personal preferences of the gifted were often stable and unchanging. Most of them could formulate their unique characters and values in their early interactions with others. 3. When facing the expansion of their self-concepts, the gifted were more able to make relevant preparations than others. The impacts of career change on self-concept were progressive; if they could be willing to recognize their performances, the new role would be smoothly compatible, and expand the original self-concept. 4.In their early experiences, most gifted adults could clearly perceive their diverse interests and show one or several talents. In this time, family and social values were often the most important factors affecting their career decisions. When these decisions run counter to their interests and beliefs, they often cause strong internal conflicts and trigger negative emotions. 5. In their youth experience, the motivation derived from early experience, especially the interest and belief of the individual would be an important direction to lead them. Their ability of proactive coping could help them to be well-prepared for the changes in social roles. 6. Gifted individuals with multiple performances could discover their diverse interests in different fields in their early years, and even preschool years. Each talent moved forward due to different driving forces in the development process, but most of them had the following four stages of development, including the exploration stage, preparation stage, development stage, and stability stage. In response to the findings of this study, the researchers provided the following suggestions: 1. For the suggestions for the gifted, they needed to embrace the confused progress, maintain the ambiguity of oneself, and explore the diversity of interests; 2. For the suggestions for the society, we needed to avoid labeling others, and avoid labeling oneself.
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資優者, 自我概念, 生涯發展, 生涯轉換, 多元表現, The gifted, Self concept, Career development, Career change, Multiple performance
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