交互教學法結合文句脈絡策略對國小聽障學生詞彙及文意理解之研究 The Effects of Integrating Context Clues into Reciprocal Teaching on Vocabulary and Contextual Comprehension for Elementary School Students with Hearing Impairments

Date
2020
Authors
葉筱鈴
Yeh, Hsiao-Ling
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Abstract
本研究採行動研究法,研究目的在於透過執行教學、反思和修正的循環歷程,在行動歷程中找出交互教學法結合文句脈絡策略的教學流程。運用交互教學法的預測、提問、澄清和摘要四個步驟,在師生「對話」互動中,教師可以視學生的理解狀況給予鷹架,學生也能監控自己的理解狀況。同時結合文句脈絡策略,讓學生可以從上下文去推導和理解不懂詞彙的詞意。 本研究以一名國小六年級語文學習表現低落的聽障學生為研究對象,以康軒版第十一冊國語課本為材料,嘗試以交互教學法結合文句脈絡策略進行教學介入,教學過程中以自編測驗及口頭回答歷程的紀錄持續評估學生在教學各階段的詞彙及文意理解表現。 整個研究分為三個階段,包括前導教學研究-第一階段鬆土期,為期兩週,主要透過實際教學了解學生的語文學習特質,並執行初步教學流程,以利後續反思、修正和再執行教學。正式教學研究-第二階段播種期,研究者更加能掌握學生的語文學習挑戰,並在每個流程的教學細節上做調整,突破學生學習上的困難,同時也逐漸摸索出教學流程的雛形。在正式教學研究-第三階段綻放期,著重於行動歷程中滾動式調整,建構出交互教學法結合文句脈絡策略的教學流程。 在學習成效的檢核方面,學生在詞彙理解的自編測驗表現,第一階段表現持平,第二階段教學三課,兩課後測優於前測,一課後測低於前測,為疲累因素導致。第三階段後測優於前測,且均在80分以上。在文意理解的自編測驗表現,各階段的後測均優於前測,進步幅度最高達60分。 在口頭回答歷程變化方面,學生在第一階段總是用念課文來回應。研究者調整教學策略為讓學生自己圈不懂詞彙,並嘗試由字意推導詞意,以更具體化的提問、調整追問技巧,提供關鍵字的視覺提示。學生在第二階段會從文意內容回答,但內容仍大多屬零碎回答。接著,研究者調整提問輔助方法,展示提問單並加入跨段引導,同時示範上下文線索搜尋,及提供依事件發展順序或時間脈絡敘寫摘要關鍵字的策略。研究者在第三階段先教導文句脈絡策略-上下文找線索的先備能力,學生可以自己找上下文線索推導不懂詞彙,並會用自己的話語回答問題,且以完整的句子來做摘要,教學中研究者協助的程度逐漸減少。 最後,研究者根據行動歷程的過程與結果,總結心得與省思,並對於詞彙及文意理解教學提出在教學上的建議與後續研究方向。
This research applied the action research method to explore the teaching process of the reciprocal teaching method combined with the strategy of using context clues through the cyclic process of teaching, including reflection and revision. Through the four steps of predicting, questioning, clarifying and summarizing in the reciprocal teaching, teacher provide the student with scaffoldings, and the student may learn to monitor their own understanding. Combined with the strategy of using context clues, students can infer vocabulary meaning from the context when encountering vocabulary that they do not understand. A sixth-grade elementary school student with hearing impairment who performed poorly on literacy participated the present intervention study. Observation and evaluation of the student's performance on vocabulary and literacy comprehension were evaluated through the study. There were three stages of this action project. The first stage which lasts for two weeks, piloting teaching was conducted to understand the students' language learning characteristics, and implement the teaching process. In the second stage, the researcher has a better grasp of the students' learning characteristics and challenges, and made some necessary adjustments to the teaching process. In the third stage, the researcher set up a teaching process that combines reciprocal teaching methods with the strategy of using context clues. The initial performance of students on self-made tests of vocabulary comprehension was stable in the first stage. In the second stage, the student made some progress on vocabulary and literary comprehension based on the performance on pre- and post-test assessments, although the student’s tiredness had some negative effects on the performance of one session. For the third stage, students demonstrated better performance on the posttests compared to the pretests of literary comprehension, and the improvement was as great as 80% above the pretest scores. The observation of student’s responses to the teaching process has shown some interesting changes. For the initial stage, the student always responded to teacher’s inquires by repeating reading the texts. The researcher therefore let the student pick up the novel vocabularies by himself, and encouraged him to infer the meaning from the word in the text, ask more specific questions, adjust the inquiring skills, and provide visual clues of keywords. In the second stage, student could answer teacher’s questions through the references of the literary content, but still not very comprehensive. Then, In the third stage, the researcher administrated the question sheet and added cross- paragraph guidance, demonstrated the search methods of contextual clue, provided strategies for depicting keywords according to the event sequences or time context of the text., and teach the student how to find the clues in contexts. As the results, students could discovery context clues and suppose the meaning of the novel vocabularies, and summarize the text using completed sentences. Finally, based on the process and results of this action project, the researchers summarize the experiences and reflections, and put forward suggestions and follow-up research directions for the teaching of vocabulary and contextual comprehension.
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Keywords
交互教學法, 文句脈絡策略, 詞彙理解, 文意理解, 聽障學生, 行動研究, reciprocal teaching method, context clues, vocabulary, contextual comprehension, hearing impairment, action research
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