談甲骨卜辭「我作基方山二咸」的文例解讀

Date
2021-06-??
Authors
張宇衛
CHANG, YU-WEI
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國立台灣師範大學國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU
Abstract
本文以新綴合「丙戌卜, 貞:我乍(作)基方 二 ,弗其鼎 (翦)」之卜辭為例,主要探討其中「我作基方 二 」一句之語法結構與部分字形問題。字形方面,聯繫字體斷代,主張「 」為「山」而非「火」,並指出「 」應釋作「咸」,屬於副詞,後面省略動詞(作)或動賓結構(作山二)。至於語法結構探討上則運用動詞語義角色、論元結構等視角,釐清動詞「作」後面所承接雙賓語的結構類型,歸結出「山二」為動詞「作」的當事賓語,「基方」為為動賓語,並聯繫卜辭相關文例推論「基方」為「基方作墉」之省,而「我作基方(作墉)山二」全句可譯作「我們為基方(作城郭一事)興築山(堙)兩座」。文末,則藉由此一文例解讀,重新將相關卜辭文例進行排譜。
This article seeks to interpret the newly conjoined oracle bone inscriptions: "Bing xu bu, que zhen, wo zuo ji fang shan er xian, fu qi ding jian," with a special focus on the syntax and character forms of the sentence "wo zuo ji fang shan er xian." As per the periodization of characters, this article argues that the character " " refers not so much to "fire" as to "mountain," and the character " " shall be interpreted as "thus," an adverb that qualified the verb "zuo" (build) or the verb-object construction "zuo shan er" (build two mounds) omitted in this case. With regard to the syntax of this sentence, this article clarifies the double-object construction that follows the verb "zuo" (build) from the perspectives of semantic roles and argument structure, according to which it claims that the term "shan er" (two mounds) is the direct object and "ji fang" (city wall) the indirect object of the verb "build." Besides, by reference to related examples, this article infers that the term "ji fang" is an abbreviated expression of "erect fortified city walls." Therefore, the entire sentence can be interpreted as follows: "We built two mounds for the erection of the city walls." Finally, this article concludes with a new collation of related inscriptions on the basis of this interpretation.
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