翻譯戲劇,搬演政治:1990年代表演工作坊的三部改編劇作

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2017

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表演工作坊自1980年代創團起至2000年代初,幾乎年年搬演翻譯戲劇,但這些劇作的譯本不一定能夠出版,表演工作坊的演出便成為觀眾了解特定劇目的唯一途徑。由於戲劇演出講求當下的效果,表演工作坊搬上舞台的翻譯戲劇通常經過在地化改編,然而分析1990年代的三齣劇作可得知,其操縱不單消弭了文化差異,亦深受台灣當時的政治環境影響,反映出異於原作的政治觀。 本研究選定《非要住院》(1990)、《意外死亡(非常意外!)》(1995)、《絕不付帳!》(1998)三齣戲劇,分析表演工作坊的翻譯策略。《非要住院》譯自英國劇作家史塔波德的電視劇本A Separate Peace,添加黑道大哥阿彪一角,並加深個人與社會的二元衝突,強化消極避世的意味;《意外死亡(非常意外!)》及《絕不付帳!》分別譯自義大利喜劇大師達利歐‧弗的Morte accidentale di anarchico與Non si paga! Non si paga!,前者淡化原作的政治訴求與意識形態,將原有的反政府立場改寫為反政治;後者將劇中的抗爭對象從企業家改寫為建商,影射時任台北市長的陳水扁。 對照時代脈絡,1980年代末起,李登輝掌權,國民黨內鬥劇烈,反對黨則逐漸茁壯,統獨、省籍成為1990年代的熱門議題。隨著台灣政治環境改變,表演工作坊在劇中呈現的政治立場也隨之變化,從1990年渴望遠離政治,1995年厭棄政治,到了1998年則把批判對象聚焦於陳水扁與國民黨黑金政治。表演工作坊在譯介戲劇的過程中做出明顯的操縱,藉翻譯劇表達自身的政治觀點,雖保留原作的劇情架構與人物,實際上卻轉移批判焦點與政治意識形態,也流露外省第二代的認同矛盾。
Since founded in mid-1980s, Performance Workshop presented at least one translated drama every year to early 2000s. Those translated dramatic texts were seldom published, and some of Performance Workshop’s productions became the only source people in Taiwan have for certain plays. It has been noted that while translating the plays, Performance Workshop often localized its content, intending to produce similar effects for audience in the target culture. These manipulations, however, not only erase cultural differences, but also express political views that are a far cry from those in the originals. This study analyzes the translation strategies used and manipulations made in three adaptations produced by Performance Workshop throughout the 1990s, including Hospitalization is a Must (1990), Accidental Death of an Anarchist (1995), and We Won't Pay! We Won't Pay! (1998). Hospitalization is a Must, translated from a half-an-hour television play A Separate Peace, added in a new story line about a gangster and reinforced the conflicts between individual and society, emphasizing the need to escape from the world. The two other plays were both translated from well-known comedies by Nobel laureate Dario Fo. In Accidental Death of an Anarchist, Performance Workshop undermined the political messages in the original play and revised certain lines to convey an attitude that rejects politics in general. In We Won't Pay! We Won't Pay!, the purpose of the autoriduzione movement was switched from asking for a fair price to fighting against a villain based on then-mayor-of-Taipei Chen Shui-bian. Performance Workshop rewrote these plays in response to drastic changes in Taiwan political environment. Lee Teng-hui became president in the late 1980s; since then, the KMT got into a fierce infight for several years, while the opposition party became stronger. Moreover, issues related to Taiwan independence and ethnic tension remained a heated debate among the public during the 1990s. As the politics in Taiwan changed, the general attitude of Performance Workshop towards politics gradually shifted overtime. While Performance Workshop indeed introduced widely-acclaimed western works into Taiwan, they also adjusted certain plots according to their own political views, showing a conflicted national identity of the second generation of Mainlanders.

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戲劇翻譯, 翻譯史, 表演工作坊, 跨文化改編, drama translation, theatre translation, translation history, Performance Workshop, cross-cultural adaptation

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