二十世紀前期海派畫風的新變—陶冷月繪畫研究 New Style of the Shanghai Painting School in the First Part of the 20th Century—A Study of the Ink Paintings by Tao Leng Yue

Date
2017
Authors
林家聿
Lin, Chia-Yu
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Abstract
海上畫派的新變趨勢始於十九世紀中期,初以花鳥題材為主軸,至二十世紀前期開始回溯山水題材,在當時復興山水畫的理念下,企求汲取外來文化以跳脫清末以來稱之為正統山水畫的四王風格。當時提倡改革的思想家有康有為(1858-1927)、梁啟超(1873-1929)、魯迅(1881-1936)與蔡元培(1868-1940)等人,主張融匯中西的美學思想,在此一社會氣氛之下,促使許多畫家們紛至歐洲或日本學習西洋繪畫與日本畫。 陶冷月為二十世紀初期,上海畫壇嘗試改革傳統山水畫風的畫家之一。他並未如大部分的畫家們一樣旅外學習,而是留在中國潛心鑽研中國傳統繪畫,過程中習得的不僅是傳統繪畫的皴法與構圖佈局的經營,更為重要的是汲取了中國傳統的文人精神。在陶冷月的畫風裡,可以看到對中國傳統圖式的援引,以及傳統漢學的學養。他不僅透過詩與畫的結合,傳達了其創作的精神與思想,也積極汲取了西方與日本繪畫的營養,開創出獨特的新畫風。 筆者透過分析陶冷月的作品,探討其新變的畫風,發現陶氏作品與日本「狩野派」、「圓山派」、「秋田蘭畫」、「琳派」與「浮世繪」的圖繪關係,以及與西方「寫實主義」與「印象派」的關聯。筆者並進一步論述並分析陶氏受到日本圖繪的結構與元素,以及西方繪畫的概念與技法的影響。在此一基礎之上,陶冷月進而將之融入中國傳統的詩詞歌賦與書法,形塑了其不同於傳統畫風的新風格。
Starting the new trend of the Shanghai painting school began from the middle of the nineteenth century. At the beginning artists were used to focus on subjects of bird-and-flower. It was the first part of the twentieth century, painters began to represent landscape painting again. Under the idea of reviving landscape painting at that time, painters were eager to absorb external cultures to create new styles to distinct from the orthodox school, so called “Si Wang(四王)”in the late Qing dynasty. At that time many scholars such as “Kang You-wei” (康有為 1858-1927), “Liang Qi-chao” (梁啟超1873-1929), “Lu Xun” (魯迅1881-1936), and “Tsai Yuan-pei” (蔡元培1868-1940), advocated to integrate Chinese cultures with western aesthetics. As the ideological trend, this idea encouraged many painters went abroad to Europe or Japan to learn western painting and Japanese painting. Tao Leng-Yue was one of artists of the Shanghai painting circles who were very keen to create new styles of landscape painting in the first part of the twentieth century. However he didn’t follow other painters who left for studying abroad, he studied traditional Chinese painting in China instead. He learned not only the technique of brushwork and the composition, but also the literati spirit of the traditional China. In the styles of Tao Leng-Yue’s paintings, we could see that he adopted diverse forms from traditional Chinese painting to represent his cultivation of Sinology. He found a way to create new styles by not only combining the poetry and painting, but also keenly deriving nutrient from Western and Japanese painting. The researcher explores Tao’s new styles through analyzing his paintings and finds the interesting relation between Tao Leng-Yue’s paintings and Japainese paintings schools such as “Kano school”, “Maruyama School”, “Akita Ranga”, “Statsu and kren School” and “ukiyo-e.” The researcher also finds that Tao’s paintings have a close relationship with Western paintings such as 〝Realism and Impressionism. The researcher goes further to discuss how the composition and elements of Japanese paintings and notion and technique of Western painting to effect on Tao Leng-Yue’s paintings. As a result Tao Leng-Yue could integrate elements of western and Japanese paintings with poetry and calligraphy of Chinese tradition to represent his new style of paintings distinct from traditional paintings at that time.
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陶冷月, 海派, 月景山水, 引西潤中, Tao Leng-Yue, Shanghai painting school, moon landscape, Western painting, Japanese painting
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