呼叫螞蟻:利用震動訊號來吸引螞蟻的喜蟻性蝴蝶 Calling for the ants: using vibrational calls to attract ants by a myrmecophilous butterfly species

Date
2016
Authors
林岳賢
Lin, Yueh-Hsien
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Abstract
物種內有效的溝通可以增進工作效率進而提高其適存度。喜蟻生物破解螞蟻的溝通密碼來與螞蟻互動藉此獲得一些好處,如被螞蟻保護。喜蟻性蝴蝶幼蟲特化的喜蟻器官藉由分泌蜜露或是特殊的化學模擬氣味來破解螞蟻的溝通密螞以吸引螞蟻。過去對於喜蟻性灰蝶的研究多著重於利用喜蟻器官吸引螞蟻方面的探討,近年來相關研究發現喜蟻性灰蝶可以利用震動訊號來吸引螞蟻。雖然昆蟲間利用震動溝通是被視為是一個常見的行為,但對於喜蟻性灰蝶利用介質振動來吸引螞蟻的研究資料甚少。藉由唱針錄音實驗,我發現喜蟻的虎灰蝶(Spindasis lohita)幼蟲會發出三種而蛹也會發出一種特定介質震動的聲音,其共生蟻懸巢舉尾蟻(Crematogaster rogenhoferi)可發出一種聲音,進而由回播實驗得知螞蟻會對蝴蝶的聲音產生比較親暱的行為。此研究為台灣首次記錄到喜蟻性蝴蝶的震動聲音,也提供了另一個利用震動聲音吸引螞蟻的例子。讓我們對於蝴蝶與螞蟻的互動可以有更進一步的了解。
Effective communication may increase work efficiency and hence increase the fitness of a population. Myrmecophiles break the ants' communication codes to associate with ants to profit from ants such as gaining protection. Larvae of lycaenid butterflies have developed myrmecophilous organs to penetrate ant communication by providing food resource or mimicking the chemical signal of ants to attract tending ants. Most studies focus on how the myrmecophilous organs attract tending ants. Recently, some researches have found some myrmecophilous butterfliesuse substrate-borne vibration to attract ants. It is believed that vibrational communication may be common among insects. But, only a few studies have described the vibrational behavior in myrmecophilous butterflies. By phonograph-stylus recording experiment, I have found that the larvae and pupae of myrmecophilous butterfly Spindasis lohita could make three specific larval calls and one pupal call. And, its tending ants Crematogaster rogenhoferi could make only one type of call. Furthermore,results of playback experiment indicated that ants reacted more benevolent toward butterfly calls. This is the first study that myrmecophilous butterflys’ vibrational calls are recorded in Taiwan. I also provide another case study in using vibrational calls to attract ants. This could provide further information about ant-butterfly interaction.
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Keywords
喜蟻性蝴蝶, 回播實驗, 介質振動, myrmecophilous butterfly, playback experiments, substrate-borne vibration
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