音樂學習的跨領域遷移效果

Date
2018-04-??
Authors
林忻叡
吳舜文
Hsin-Rui Lin, Shun-Wen Wu
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國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育中心
National Taiwan Normal University Special Education Center
Abstract
學習音樂會對認知歷程產生各種影響。研究發現,音樂家在處理音樂訊息的歷程便與一般人諸多差異,但亦有不少研究指出,音樂經驗與智力發展具顯著相關,某些學者據此認為學習音樂可促進智力發展。就教育心理學角度,一個領域學習若是影響其他領域能力發展,此即稱為「一般性遷移效果」(general transfer effect)。本文回顧現有文獻,探討學習音樂在一般智力、記憶力、視覺處理能力、語言發展、語文和數學成就、社會情緒技能等6個領域的遷移效果。現有證據傾向支持,學習音樂可微幅促進智力發展,記憶力與語言發展的某些成分也可能受惠於音樂訓練;然而,學習音樂與視覺處理能力以及學業成就無顯著關聯,而音樂訓練與社會情緒技能則尚待更多研究持續探討。
Learning music changes an individual’s cognitive process. Current literature points out that musicians and non-musicians differ in how they process musical information. Furthermore, it is claimed that musical training promotes the development of intelligence. Such claims that the learning experiences in one domain could have influenceon outcomes in another domain are known as “general transfer effects” in the field of educational psychology. Based on current findings, we discuss the effects of musical training on the following six domains: intelligence, memory, visual processing, language development, language verbal and mathematical achievement, and social emotional skills. Empirical findings support the position that music lessons slightly promote the development of general intelligence, as well as some components of memory and language development. However, it is proved that musical experience has no impact on visual processing and academic achievement, whereas the connection between music instruction and social emotional skills needs to be explored further.
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