百年家族企業傳承與品牌策略之研究-以施華洛世奇水晶集團為例

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2018

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據美國家族企業研究機構調查,僅有30%家族企業可以成功由第一代傳承到第二代,然後只有12%傳位到第三代,更僅有不到3%成功傳承到第四代。 另據統計全球逾百年歷史的家族企業,最多在日本達25.321間,排名第二是美國,達11,735間,至於中國排名第21有204間,香港排31名,擁有89間。 1976年中國結束了水深火熱的文化大革命十年浩劫,1978年鄧小平推動經濟改革開放,當時人民物資缺乏困苦不堪,生活衛生條件差,經常缺水缺電,國民所得不到100美元。1990年以前中國經濟長期處於貿易逆差狀況。 1987年開放兩岸探親,來自台灣的經濟援助及台商的開疆闢土技術轉移,工廠如雨後春筍四處林立,爾後國際企業也紛紛進入中國市場,2001年中國加入WTO後,儼然成為世界工廠,人均GDP突破1000美元。2006年起,中國對美國出口開始出現1-2仟多億美元的貿易順差。2015年胡潤研究院統計,中國十億美元富豪人數首度超越美國,2006-2015年間,富豪人數10年成長4倍,華人經濟體在世界扮演愈來愈重要的角色。 本研究以舉世無雙的奧地利施華洛世奇(Swarovski)水晶集團為個案,創辦人一百多年前就懂得智慧財產權的專利申請,並堅持不上市,其獨特的品牌策略及對經營權、控制權、所有權的遠見卓識,讓施華洛世奇品牌價值獨一無二,創造財富有著點石成「晶」的魔法。如今這個百年品牌由第五代的五位執行董事會家族成員共同治理,本文將破解「富不過三代」的家族傳承魔咒,揭露家族企業如何「傳富五代」。 傳承是企業百年長青、永續發展的根基,本研究呼籲教育部早日在頂尖大學成立「國際家族企業研究中心」或「研究所」,結合產、官、學界共同合作,以利企業永續發展,家族基業長青。
According to a survey conducted by the American family business research institute, only 30% of family businesses successfully survive the transition from the first to second generation ownership, 12% survive to third generation, and no more than 3% successfully survive to fourth generation. According to the statistics, there are 25,321 family businesses in Japan, which makes Japan the No.1 country with greatest number of family company of more than 100 years of history in the world , ranking second is the United States, reaching 11,735. China is on the 21st with 204 family companies and Hong Kong is on the 31rd with 89 family companies. This thesis uses the world-famous Swarovski Crystal Group as a case to study for. More than 100 years ago, the founder had already knew patent applications for intellectual property rights, and insisted that not going public on stock market. His unique brand strategy and vision on its right of operation, control, and ownership, making this brand unique in its value, with the magic of creating wealth by making a stone into a “golden crystal”. Today, this century-old brand is run by the members of the fifth generation of five executive board family members. This article will crack down on the curse of "wealthy families lose their fortune in three generations" and reveal how a family business like Swarovski can "survive unto fifth generation." Inheritance is the root of a company’s lasting and sustainable development. This study calls for the Ministry of Education to establish an “International Enterprise Family Research Center” or “Institute” at the top universities as soon as possible, in order to cooperate with production, government, and academia to support sustainable business development and lasting family business.

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百年品牌, 家族企業, 企業傳承, 品牌策略, 100-year brand, family business, legacy, brand strategy

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